Quick Pick Internet Links

EARTH & SPACE SCIENCE FOR EVERYBODY

By

Lasse  A. Kivioja

This book is a new type of a book that has all of its over 1,400 photos/pictures/ galleries/tables/expert explanations available in a small download, called ‘Quick Pick Links’ (QPL).  The book itself has no pictures on its 332 printed pages.   Each link opens on the computer monitor or on Digital Book Reader by a mouse click on the desired link.  Many of these links update themselves daily in the ‘Quick Pick Links’ as new information becomes available, keeping this book up to date almost forever.  

Many Internet links in the  ‘Quick Pick Links’ open journal articles with galleries for the day and the days past.  Some galleries cover several years and also have references to other Internet links, journal articles and to books in the subject area of the link.  Many journal articles in the Internet links have underlined words (= other links) giving more details.

 
Among the carefully selected ‘Quick Pick Links’ are the excellent US government links, such as by NASA, GSFC  (GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER), USGS, USNO, NOAA, HUBBLE, CHANDRA, NIST, AGU, USGS, NOAA, NAOJ, HUBBLE, SPITZER, STEREO, SOHO, European Space Agency ESA and the Japanese JAXA.  There are some other organizations with excellent links.  The websites of the mentioned acronyms, of many Ground Telescopes, of many Space Probes and of many Orbiting Telescopes have excellent sites. Most of those sites are American.  All of them have excellent links/sites with their newest photos and explanations with galleries.  All links are in the Public Domain.

The downloaded ‘Quick Pick Links’ document has 129 pages and 10813 words (September 2011).  It can be downloaded from the author’s website www.lakivioja.com in a few seconds.  The quality of these photos is superior to the same photos/pictures printed on the paper pages of any book.  This book has 332 pages.  Imagine how the book would look if it had fourteen hundred color photos!

The author recommends that the icon of the ‘Quick Pick Links’ be left on the desktop for the duration of reading the book making the links always quickly available.  If the desired link does not open, (that happens very seldom), the site may be under construction or no longer maintained.  One can always google for the subject matter immediately above the link in the book, or COPY/PASTE the link into a browser.  For instance:

Google: < mount st. helens volcano > produced 61 pages with about 9 links per page.  One of these 600 links might be the troublesome link, or another link may have almost the same desired information.

1.  Introduction

http://www.nineplanets.org/overview.html        

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=OortCloud

http://www.astronomynotes.com/solfluf/s8.htm

Google:  < jpl >

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ 

Google:   < the milky way >

http://casswww.ucsd.edu/public/tutorial/MW.html

http://seds.org/messier/more/mw.html

 Google:   < list of nearest galaxies >

http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-nearest-galaxies

http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-galaxies

 Google:   < NOAO Image Gallery: Galaxies > Click on photos.

http://www.noao.edu/image_gallery/galaxies.html

http://antwrp.sfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap070319.html

2.  Available Bibliography on the Internet

Google: < nnn >

http://www.loc.gov/index.html?gclid=CN201rXkuI0CFTJcIgodo1cGFg

Google: < copyright term and the public domain in the United Sntates >

http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/training/Hirtle_Public_Domain.htm

2.2. Useful Internet Sites for Earth Sciences

  1. Google: < nasa earth observatory, Image of the Day >

         http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/

     http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/SolarWind.shtml

     http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/

     www.space.com

         www.space.com/news

  1. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) at:

  1.  www.noaa.gov

         U.S. Geological Survey at

  1. www.usgs.gov

U.S. Government at:

  1. www.science.gov

  1. U.S. Naval Observatory

:

  1. http://www.nrl.navy.mil/

  1. Sun – Earth environment:

  1. www.spaceweather.com

  1. HUBBLE:

  1. http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2007/01 

  1. American Geophysical Union (AGU) at:

  1. www.agu.org

  1. Chandra X-Ray observatory:

  1. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/main/index.html

  1. SOHO, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory:

  1. http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/data/realtime/eit_284/512/

  1. http://www.space-plasma.qmw.ac.uk/heliocoords/systems2art/systems2art.html

  1. SECCHI: Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation:

  1. http://secchi.nrl.navy.mil/

  1. STEREO-A and STEREO-B:

  1. http://stereo.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  1. ESA, European Space Agency:

         http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEM0GW8L6VE_index_0.html

  1. JAXA: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency:

     http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/e/

  1. NAOJ, ( + Hinode), National Astronomical Observatory of Japan:

          http://solar-b.nao.ac.jp/index_e.shtml

          http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/02nov_firstlight.htm

          http://www.virtualobservatory.org/

Orbital Astronomical telescopes:

http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/

On previous link, click on photos and see videos

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Webb_Space_Telescope

http://www.seds.org/~spider/oaos/oaos.html

Ground-based Astronomical Observatories:

Mauna Kea Observatories:

http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/mko/

http://dir.yahoo.com/Science/Astronomy/Research/Observatories/

http://tdc-www.harvard.edu/mthopkins/obstours.html

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~pls/astronomy/observs.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest_astronomical_observatories

Atmospheric Sciences

http://www.academicinfo.net/atmsci.html

Biogeosciences

http://www.biogeosciences.org/

Click on ‘Translate’ into English

Geodesy

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/Geodesy4Layman/toc.htm

Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetosphere

http://geopaleomagnetism.agu.org/

Hydrology

http://www.aihydro.org/

Click on ‘Translate’ into English

Ocean Sciences

http://www.nsf.gov/div/index.jsp?div=oce

Planetary Sciences

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/library/website.shtml

Seismology

http://seismology.agu.org/

Space Physics and Aeronomy

http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=15993

Tectonophysics

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/neic/

         Volcanology

http://dir.yahoo.com/Science/Earth_Sciences/Geology_and_Geophysics/Volcanology/

3.  Areas of Earth Sciences Covered in this Book

http://www.agu.org/

http://www.google.com/Top/Science/Earth_Sciences/Oceanography/Journals/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_science

4.  From Where and How did all this Come About?

No person, neither any religion knows all the details how the universe came to being

5.  Basic Units of Length

Google:  < nist > and for all SI (International System) units at:

Google:  < base unit definitions: meter, inch, foot, mile,… >

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/meter.html

http://www.nist.gov/

 

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/current.html

Google:   < definition of the meter>

http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/meter.htm

 Google:   < the united states and the metric system >

http://ts.nist.gov/WeightsAndMeasures/Metric/lc1136a.cfm

 Google:   < usno master clock time >

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/what.html

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/what1.html

Excerpt form the link above:  “These GIF animations use server push to send the time out in synchronization with the USNO Master Clock. They require a web browser that fully implements this technique. Please note that the time displays available from this page will not work for all browsers. The most accurate way to use the Internet to get to USNO time is via NTP

Google:   < nautical mile >        

http://www.boatsafe.com/kids/roger1099.htm        

Google:  < platinum-iridium meter bar >

http://www.mel.nist.gov/div821/webdocs-14/lsi_2.htm

Google:   < nist history of metric system > NIST stands for National Institute of Standards and Technology.

 http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/history.html

Google:   < si system of measures >

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/index.html

 

Google:   < nist metric information and conversions: a capsule history >

http://ts.nist.gov/WeightsAndMeasures/Metric/lc1136a.cfm

Google:   < npl history of the length measurement >

http://www.npl.co.uk/about/history_length/

Google:   < metric system >

http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/common.html

Google:   < international system of units >

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/index.html

Google:   < old units of length >

http://www.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/oldleng.htm

Google:   < the earth based units of length >

http://www.roma1.infn.it/~dagos/history/sm/node4.html

5.1.  Understandable Units for all Astronomical Distances

Google:   < anatomy of the solar system >

http://www.northern-stars.com/solar_system_distance_scal.htm

Google:   < the nine planets >    data on this solar system

http://www.nineplanets.org/ 

Google:   < solar system sizes and scales >

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/K12/planetsize/planetsize.html

Google:    < apod index-galaxies local group >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/local_group.html

This site has: “Editor's choices for educational Astronomy Pictures of the Day about the Local Group of galaxies:

              < list of nearest galaxies > 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_nearest_galaxies

This site lists 115 galaxies within about 12 million light-year radius from us.  Andromeda is one of them: at about 3 million light-year distance.

The volume of a sphere with a radius of 3 light-years is 113 cubic light-years. Therefore in this small sample, the density of galaxies (around us) is 0.3 galaxies per one cubic light-year.

The volume of the little larger (total listed) sphere (not only to Andromeda) is about is 7,200 cubic light-years.  This volume has 115 galaxies listed. Therefore in this little larger sample, the density of listed galaxies (around us) is 0.2 galaxies per one cubic light-year.

Not too bad for government work!

The density of galaxies in the universe is not uniform.  Galaxy clusters exist.

http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/supercls.html

5.2. How Long Is The 14 Billion, (14 x 10E9) Light-Year Distance?

Google:  < fundamental physical constants >

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html

Google:   < one light year >

http://www.physlink.com/education/askexperts/ae502.cfm

 

one year = 31 556 926 seconds

 

the speed of light = 299 792 458 m/s m / s

One light-year = 9,460,528, 000,000,000,000 meters

= (2.9979*10^8 m/s)*(3.1557*10^7 s)
= 9.4605*10^15 meters
or ~ 9,500,000,000,000 kilometers
or ~ 5,900,000,000,000 miles
or ~ 63,279 Astronomical units (AU). One AU = 500 light-seconds = Earth to Sun average distance

http://www.glyphweb.com/esky/default.htm?http://www.glyphweb.com/esky/concepts/lightyear.html

Google:  < exponential notation of numbers >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_notation

Google:  < periodic table >

http://www.webelements.com/

Google:   < supernova >

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/supernovae.html

http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/bb_home.html

Google:   < extra-solar system planets >

http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1998/19

 

Google:   < other planetary systems >

http://www.princeton.edu/~willman/planetary_systems/

 6.  Directions/Distances to Stars and Galaxies

Google:  < celestial coordinates >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/coordinates.html

        

Google:   < celestial declinations and right ascensions >

http://www.skyandtelescope.com/howto/basics/Celestial_Coordinates.html

Google:   < astronomical distances >

http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/distance.htm

7.  Star Constellations

Google:      < alphabetical listing of star constellations >

http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/constellation_list.html

Google:   < polaris or north star or pole star >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pole_star

http://library.thinkquest.org/29033/begin/coordinate.htm

Google:   < ecliptic constellations >

http://www.mallorcaweb.net/masm/descon1.htm

Google:   < the origin of the zodiac >

http://homepage.mac.com/kvmagruder/bcp/zodiacal/zoo.htm

8.  The Sun’s Location in the Milky Way Galaxy 

Google:     < the 50 nearest stars >  Scroll down to the table.

http://www.cosmobrain.com/cosmobrain/res/nearstar.html

Google:   < star magnitudes > Star magnitude describes star’s apparent brightness.

http://www.vaughns-1-pagers.com/science/star-magnitude.htm

Google:   < milky way galaxy >

http://cassfos02.ucsd.edu/public/tutorial/MW.html

Google:   < news about the milky way galaxy >

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4278005.stm

Google:  < the milky way galaxy >

http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/gal_milky.html

Google:   < seti >

http://setiathome.berkeley.edu/

Google:   < astronomers discover largest stars known >

http://www.physorg.com/news2640.html

8.1.  Planet Earth in the Universe

Google:  < the milky way galaxy – our home >

http://apod.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap000130.html

Google:  < celestial coordinates >

http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/segwayed/lessons/findplanets/coordinates.html

        

Google:   < celestial declinations and right ascensions >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/coordinates.html

Google:  < age of the universe >        

http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/age.html

Google:   < HubbleSite-faqs. how old is the solar system? >

http://hubblesite.org/reference_desk/faq/answer.php.id=3&cat=solarsystem

Google:   < redshift >        

http://astsun.astro.virginia.edu/~jh8h/glossary/redshift.htm

Google:   < hot big bang >

http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/bb_home.html

http://chandra.harvard.edu/about/index.html

 9. Possible Alien Visits to Earth

Google:    < three body problem is celestial mechanics >

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/RestrictedThree-BodyProblem.html

Google:   < double stars >

http://schmidling.com/doubst.htm

Google:   < the double star library >

http://ad.usno.navy.mil/wds/dsl.html

http://www.usno.navy.mil/

Google:   < messier object 31 > = Andromeda, the nearest large spiral galaxy.

http://seds.org/messier/m/m031.html

10. Common Velocities in Space

Google:    < solar system data >

http://www.nineplanets.org/data.html

Google:   < Primer on the Solar Space Environment >

http://www.sec.noaa.gov/primer/primer.html

Google:   < earth and moon viewer >

http://www.fourmilab.ch/earthview/

Google:   < earth and sun viewer >

http://ds9.ssl.berkeley.edu/viewer/flash/flash.html

Google:   < solar system viewer >  

http://space.jpl.nasa.gov/

Google:   < galactic viewer >

http://www.weathergraphics.com/galactic/

Google:   < number of galaxies in the universe >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/TopazMurray.shtml

Google:   < Doppler shift >

http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/doppler.htm

Google:   < spectral lines in stars >

http://cas.sdss.org/dr6/en/proj/advanced/spectraltypes/lines.asp

11. Earth as a Sphere

Google:   < the earth as a sphere >

http://www.roundearth.net/sphere.htm

Google:  < the earth as an ellipsoid >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Figure_of_the_Earth

11.1. The Direct Problem in Computing Earthly Distances

Google:   < Canadian Spatial Reference System - Software >

http://www.geod.nrcan.gc.ca/site_e.php

Google:   < geodetic direct problem >

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1971BGNS...99...55K

Link above:

Computation of geodetic direct and indirect problems by computers accumulating increments from geodetic line elements.

Authors:

Kivioja, L. A.

Google:   < back azimuth >

http://www.answers.com/topic/back-azimuth?cat=technology

Google:   < datum and earth ellipsoid >

http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/datum/datum.html

Google:   < geodetic line >

http://www.answers.com/topic/geodetic-line?cat=technology

11.2. The Direct and Inverse Problem in Computing Earthly Distances

Google:   < geometric geodesy >

 Journal Article

Computation of geodetic direct and indirect problems by computers accumulating increments from geodetic line elements

L. A. Kivioja

Bulletin Géodésique (1946 - 1975), 1971, Volume 99, Number 1, Pages 55-63

  1. Show Summary
  2. Download PDF (349.2 KB)

In Bulletin Geodesique and in Surveying and Mapping, Kivioja published a method for computing coordinates and azimuths for any 'way-points' and any 'end-points' in GPS positioning, solving the two Main Problems of Geometric Geodesy (Direct and Inverse Problems) by very precise computer integration using the original differential equations for all geodetic line elements on the surface of any Earth Ellipsoid besting all older methods. Famous mathematicians spent some time solving these two elliptical integration problems. Among them are: Clairaut 1713-1765, Lagrange 1736-1813, Laplace 1749-1827, Legendre 1752-1833, Gauss 1777-1855, Bessel 1784-1846, Jordan 1838-1922 and Helmert 1843-1917.None of these famous men had electronic calculators. 

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/Geodesy4Layman/toc.htm

Google:   < international association of geodesy >

http://www.iag-aig.org/

Google;  < yrjö väisälä >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yrj%C3%B6_V%C3%A4is%C3%A4l%C3%A4

In link above, click on ‘Geodesy’.

These are the beginnings of the GPS, the Global Positioning System, originally called the Geodetic Positioning System by its developers.  The name was changed by the American TV-media whose members did not know the meaning of the English word:  GEODETIC, or the word was considered too unknown to most people.

(The author knew personally professor Väisälä and visited his home and his outstanding Tuorla Astronomical Observatory near Turku, Finland in 1964.)

GPS has its origins in professor Yrjö Väisäslä’s many inventions.  He invented the Star Triangulation Method, designed and built suitable equipment, including cameras for very large triangles (much larger triangles than in standard first-order triangulation networks over relativly flat lands).  This Väisälä’s method was used in the 1950s by the Finnish Geodetic Institute.  Half of Finland was covered by 4 Väisälä’s large Star Triangulation triangles.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_triangulation

Väisälä’s method led to the Star Triangulation Method used by the US National Geodetic Survey (NGS) covering the whole Earth: U.S. National Geodetic Survey (1966-1970. . .

http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19900903&slug=1091155

NGS used satellites with series of blinking lights.  Earlier, Väisälä method used first Magnesium camera-flashes and later electronic flashes at altitudes of 20 to 40 kilometers, carried up by weather balloons designed and built by Yrjö Väisälä’s brother Vilho Väisälä.  

http://www.vaisala.com/en/corporate/history/professorvilhovaisala/Pages/default.aspx

The same individual light flashes were simultaneuosly photographed from 3 (or 4) ground stations against each station’s backgroud star field.


[PDF]
 

DELFT UNIVERSITY EQUIPMENT FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC SATELLITE

www.ncg.knaw.nl/Publicaties/Geodesy/pdf/20Poelstra.pdf - Block all www.ncg.knaw.nl results

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
by TJ POELSTRA
capable of holding eight 
photographic plates (size 8" X 10"). Time is obtained by means ...principle a number of photographic images of the satellite projected against a background of stars. A specific star ..... Three light-flashes are indicated. .

The intended link from above is:

http://www.ncg.knaw.nl/Publicaties/Geodesy/pdf/20Poelstra.pdf    << see its page 14

http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/brs/geind1.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WORLDWIDE_GEOMETRIC_SATELLITE_TRIANGULATION_NETWORK,_BC-4_CAMERAS.GIF



Here's a view of the camera, manufactured by Wild, in Heerbrugg, Switzerland,
 specially for photographing satellites. The original BC-4 had a 350 mm focal length while the modified camera used in the PAGEOS program had a 450mm focal length.

http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/1968.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geodesy

http://www.google.com/#hl=en&cp=25&gs_id=4m&xhr=t&q=wild+T4+theodolite+photos&qe=d2lsZCBUNCB0aGVvZG9saXRlIHBob3Rvcw&qesig=bj-OAzSXYZH-ArwAX0bIKw&pkc=AFgZ2tnzmWR5UJGBH9VnaRll9KPrMn1sYtYHZ9rMP9gSWEj3UzUeVNcNMtUOzlyG3Q2jHewyyqvedPwEJYFriiEpXDyKhiJFEw&pf=p&sclient=psy&source=hp&pbx=1&oq=wild+T4+theodolite+photos&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=&gs_upl=&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=796c71472385f62f&biw=1236&bih=856

THEODOLITE WILD T4

This theodolite was built by the Wild company. The T4 was mainly used, up until the 1970s, to establish astronomical latitude and longitude of geodetic points by observing stars.

    

The light flashes were photographed simultaneously with high precision cameras (1940’s and later) against the station’s star backgound from 3 (or more ground stations), producing more accurate relative ground coordinates for the camera stations than was possible earlier with trangulation targets on the ground.

NGS observations covered the whole Earth’s surface. For instance, one triangle covered the entire continental USA.  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System

Väisälä’s method led to the widely known GPS, which became possible after the availability of Earth satellites and atomic clocks in them and on the ground.  

GPS positioning system is one of the most important inventions of our time.  

GPS is the final product invented and built by geodesists from Yrjö Väisälä and geodesists at the Finnish Geodetic Institute to the geodesists at NGS (National Geodetic Survey), DOD (Department of Defense), scientists, engineers working at many industries led to the present GPS from basic star triangulation method to basic trilateration method.  Both triangulation and trilateration methods are classical trigonometric surveying methods of solving plane triangles  (getting to know lengths of all triangle sides and all three angles) when knowing three parts of which one must be a side, i.e. a distance.  Most of the financial costs were paid by the American taxpayers.  

Now, almost  every man and woman uses a GPS receiver.  GPS has been a life saver in countless situations in all countries.

After 1957, many types of Earth satellites and Atomic Clocks were built and finally satellites had atomic clocks on the approximately two dozen operational GPS Satellites (2011).  

The basic operation principle of GPS is: from the time differences that a particular signal is broadcast from a satellite and is a little later received by 3 GPS receivers at three stations.  The distances between satellite (at the instant when it sent its signal) and the receiving stations can be computed. The station coordinates by some GPS receivers can be obtained to millimeter accuracies.

Then the GPS receiver can display its location (i.e. coordinates: latitude, longitude and elevation) whether the receiver is on the ground, in a car, in an airplane or up in a tree.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System

http://www.biographybase.com/biography/Vaisala_Yrjo.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System

Google:   < important geoscientists >

http://cgiss.boisestate.edu/~billc/geoscientists.html

Google:   < friedrich robert helmert > 1843-1917.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Robert_Helmert

Google:   < friedrich wilhelm bessel > 1784-1846.

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Mathematicians/Bessel.html

Google:   < karl friedrich gauss > 1777-1855.

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Gauss.html

Google:   < adrien-marie legendre > 1752-1833

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Biographies/Legendre.html

Google:   < pierre-simon laplace > 1749-1827.

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Mathematicians/Laplace.html

Google:   < joseph-louis lagrange > 1736-1813.

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Lagrange.html

Google:   < alexis claude clairaut > 1713-1765.

http://www.stetson.edu/~efriedma/periodictable/html/Cl.html

Google:    < johannes kepler > 1571-1630

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler

Google:   < tycho brahe > 1546-1601

http://galileo.rice.edu/sci/brahe.html

Google:   < nicolaus Copernicus > 1473-1543.

http://www.phy.hr/~dpaar/fizicari/xcopern.html

Google:   < erathostenes' method > ?-194 BC

http://eduwww.mikkeli.fi/opetus/myk/kv/comenius/erathostenes.htm

 

11.3. General Shape of the Earth

Google: < geoid map >

http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMNBNKIWZF_index_1.html

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/GRACE_Revised/page3.html

Google:  < world geodetic system [wgs] >

http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/wgs84/

Google:  < wgs 1984 >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System

Google:  < orbital perturbations of satellite orbits >

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhDT........15R

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981AnG....37..113D

http://qjmam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/3/283

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v190/n4776/abs/190615a0.html

http://www.aero.org/publications/chao/index.html

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1994/94JC02080.shtml

http://www.astro.oma.be/ICET/icetdb/7_8.html

Google:   < US Naval Observatory (USNO) GPS Operations >

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/gps.html

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/gpsinfo.html

Google:   < NGS-PRECISE GPS ORBITS >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/orbits/

http://edu-observatory.org/gps/tracking.html

Google:   < location of GEO communication satellites >

http://www.adec.edu/satdb/sat-loc.html

http://www.adec.edu/satdb/timechart.html

        

http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/5889492-claims.html

http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6028551-claims.html 

11.6.  Room-Size Balloon Model and the Moon Astronauts

http://www.google.com/#hl=en&sugexp=ldymls&xhr=t&q=photo+of+eath+taken+from+the+moon&cp=33&qe=cGhvdG8gb2YgZWF0aCB0YWtlbiBmcm9tIHRoZSBtb29u&qesig=Hathhg5dBnuJNXVIupt4vA&pkc=AFgZ2tkRrTPYXibuKjpBy3CwzkyV5B-IhKvEXUR2KxHt-fAE4Ra8EN6QGrDW02R2ss_8eJ5aUmA0NSwnDBPNlqhvAkTGGgeCUQ&pf=p&sclient=psy&source=hp&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=photo+of+eath+taken+from+the+moon&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=bb00a8cd1aea9d79&biw=1016&bih=775

www.space.com/imageoftheday/image_of_day_041004.html

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/photo_gallery/photogallery-earth.html

http://www.geo-orbit.org/sizepgs/geodef.html        

http://inkido.indiana.edu/a100/earthmoon2.html

12.  Miniature Models of the Entire Universe

12.1.  Miniature Model Number One of the Known Universe

Google:  < one light year >        

http://www.answers.com/topic/light-year?cat=technology

12.2. Location of Planet Earth in this Model

12.3. Miniature Model Number Two of the Universe

Google:  < bedbugs >

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=bedbugs&btnG=Search

http://www.everydayhealth.com/info/v1p/bedbugs?xid=g_dlp&s_kwcid=TC|21765|bedbugs||S|e|6549093734&gclid=CIH5-qf_pKkCFcO8Kgodl2kxyQ

12.4. Miniature Overview Model Number Three of the Universe

12.5. Where are we in this Universe?

Google:  < hubble measures the expanding universe >  

http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast25may99_1.htm

Google:   < how many stars in the milky way galaxy? >        

http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=31

Google:   < how many stars in the universe? >

http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEM75BS1VED_index_0.html

Google:   < how many galaxies in the universe? >

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/021127a.html

Google:   < nearest 50 stars >

http://www.cosmobrain.com/cosmobrain/res/nearstar.html

http://www.astro-tom.com/technical_data/nearest_stars.htm

Google:   < milky way galaxy >

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=milky+way+galaxy+&btnG=Search

Google:   < star constellations >

http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/

Google:   < m31 the andromeda galaxy >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap991114.html

Google:   < celestial coordinates >

http://www.astronomynotes.com/nakedeye/s6.htm        

13.  Earth’s Orbit around ‘Our’ Sun

Google: < the nine planets >

http://kids.nineplanets.org/intro.htm

Google:   < one light year distance >

http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/cosmic_reference/distance.html

Google:   < kepler's laws >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler.html

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kepler.html

Google:   < planetary orbital elements >

http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?planets#elem

http://www.met.rdg.ac.uk/~ross/Astronomy/Planets.html

Google:   < jpl solar system dynamics >

http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/

Google:   < ellipse - from mathworld >

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Ellipse.html

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Ellipsoid.html

Google:  < precession and nutation >

http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=545

Google:  < precession and nutation of the equinoxes >

http://www.hartrao.ac.za/nccsdoc/slalib/sun67.htx/node203.html

Google:  < fundamental physical constants > When there, click on ‘Adopted values’, and then ‘standard acceleration of gravity’.

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html

Google:  < kepler’s laws of planetary motion >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler.html

Google:    < the ellipse >

http://www.google.com/search?q=ellipse&hl=en&biw=1016&bih=775&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=kb3uTdWtDpO1qQG7nMynCA&ved=0CFUQsAQ

Google:   < ellipse calculator >

http://easycalculation.com/area/ellipse.php

Google:   < orbit of moon around the sun >

http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/convex.html

Google:   < barycenter of moon and earth >

http://www.astronomycafe.net/qadir/q665.html

Google:   < earth's seasons >

http://www.google.com/search?q=seasons+on+earth&hl=en&biw=1016&bih=775&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=K8DuTeHAE5PksQPDp7CABw&sqi=2&ved=0CCgQsAQ

Google:  < precession of earth > Scroll down and read about the obliquity of the ecliptic plane.

http://astro.wsu.edu/worthey/astro/html/lec-precession.html

Google:   < today's space weather >

http://www.sec.noaa.gov/today.html

Google:   < milky way >

http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/gal_milky.html

Google:   < meteor dust >

http://www.expanding-earth.org/page_1.htm

Google:   < 10-accretion of mass > Scroll down to see an astronaut on the Moon.

http://www.expanding-earth.org/page_10.htm

Google:   < meteorite odds/ends & trivia >

 

http://www.meteorites.com.au/odds&ends/

Google:   < solar wind >

http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/SolarWind.shtml

Google:   < current solar wind conditions > Try to get this type of up-to-date daily information from any printed book!

http://space.rice.edu/ISTP/justdials.html

14.  Creator, God, Supreme Being

15.  Number of Galaxies and Stars in the Universe

Google:   < how to calculate the volume of a sphere? >

http://www.csgnetwork.com/circlecalc.html

Google:   < power of ten multiplier chart >

http://www.poynton.com/notes/units/index.html

http://searchstorage.techtarget.com/definition/Kilo-mega-giga-tera-peta-and-all-that

Google:   < how many galaxies, stars are there in the universe? >

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/021127a.html

http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEM75BS1VED_index_0.html

Google:   < list of nearest galaxies >

http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/galaclus.html

http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-galaxies

             

16.  There is Nothing in the Known Universe Like this Earth

Google: < planet venus statistics >

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/venus.htm

 Scroll down for Venus statistics

http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementfacts/a/lead.htm

Lead melts at 327.5 °C = 600.65 °K = 621.5 °F.

Google:  < planet mercury statistics >

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/mercury.htm   Scroll down to the table.

Google: < outer planets >

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/

http://www.siec.k12.in.us/west/proj/space/solar2.htm

Google:   < the nine planets >

http://nineplanets.org/

Google:  < views of the solar system >

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/homepage.htm

Google:   < star alpha centauri >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/KathrynTam.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_Centauri

Google:   < nearby stars >

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/super_earth_040825.html

Google:    < the 50 nearest stars >

http://www.cosmobrain.com/cosmobrain/res/brightstar.html

Scroll down to the table of stars.

Google:    < milky way galaxy >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milky_Way

Google:  < seti >

http://www.space.com/searchforlife/

http://www.seti.org/

 

17.  This Solar System in the Milky Way Galaxy

Google:  < milky way galaxy >

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_uni/uni_101mw.html

Google:     < galactic year >

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/G/galyear.html

17.1. Google: < Distance Unit Parsec >

1 Parsec = 3.08568025 × 1016 meters

http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/cosmic_reference/distance.html

http://www.unitconversion.org/length/parsec-conversion.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsec

From link above:

1 parsec =

SI units

30.857×1012 km

30.857×1015 m

Astronomical units

206.26×103 AU

3.26156 ly

US customary / Imperial units

19.174×1012 mi

18.  Angular Units of Measurements

18.1. Radians

   

Google: < radian measure >

http://www.themathpage.com/aTrig/radian-measure.htm

18.2. Degrees, Minutes and Seconds

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decimal_time

18.3. Hours, Minutes and Seconds

Google:   < coordinate systems in astronomy > 

http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/~spider/spider/ScholarX/coords.html

                < surveying instrument collection – theodolites >

http://www.howstuffworks.com/gps.htm

http://www.advpossys.com/index2.htm

        

                < kern geodetic theodolites >

http://www.wild-heerbrugg.com/hwatkern.htm

http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/surveying/object.cfm?recordnumber=747733

                < Surveying, Engineering, & Construction Instruments >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodolite

http://www.engineersupply.com/surveying-equipment.aspx

http://www.capitalsurveyingsupplies.com/

19.  Sun and its Planets

Google:   < galactic black holes >

http://library.thinkquest.org/10148/galactic.shtml

 

                < the nine planets >  Click on Solar system Overview

http://nineplanets.org/

< the sun and its solar system >

http://solarsystem.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/index.cfm

                < centrifugal and centripetal forces >

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0811114.html

                < sun's rotation period >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/RadhikaKapoor.shtml

                < the very latest soho images >

For the day the link is clicked and older

http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/data/realtime-update.html

http://sse.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Sun&Display=Facts&System=Metric

http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/data/realtime-images.html

20. Comparing the Gravitations of the Sun, Earth and Moon

The book has numerical examples for the factual situations.

21. Incoming Meteor Particles and Dust to Earth

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteoroid >

http://www.newsfromplanetearth.com/44153/how-do-we-dodge-the-next-incoming-asteroid/

Google:  < inclination for solar orbits >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inclination

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/charchart.cfm

http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-284751/inclination

Google:  < the nine planets solar system tour >

http://nineplanets.org/tour/

< web definitions for radiation pressure >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_pressure

http://blazelabs.com/f-g-rpress.asp

http://www.answers.com/topic/solar-sail?cat=technology

               < solar sails, latest news >

http://www.solarsails.info/

http://wiki.solarsails.info/index.php?title=Main_Page

http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110203/full/news.2011.68.html

http://www.aolnews.com/2011/04/25/nasa-solar-sail-is-the-little-satellite-that-could/

               < asteroids, comets, meteoroids, meteorites, meteors >

http://schoolworkhelper.net/2011/02/solar-system-debris-comets-asteroids-meteoroids-meteors/

http://www.kidscosmos.org/kid-stuff/asteroid-facts.html

http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/topnav/subjects/spacescience/Asteroids_Comets_Meteorites.html

             < artificial satellites >

http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/artificial_satellites_worldbook.html

               < solar wind >

http://spaceweather.com/

On the upper left, solar wind is listed for the day the link is clicked.

For Jun. 9, 2011, it was: speed: 463.3 km/sec and density: 2.0 protons/cm3

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/sun/wind.html

               < comet tails >

http://hubblesite.org/reference_desk/faq/answer.php.id=19&cat=solarsystem

                  http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap061004.html

                  http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap060319.html

                  http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/lists/InnerPlot.html

Google:  < one astronomical unit >

1 AU = 149 598 000 km = 500 light-seconds = Average Distance Earth to Sun

http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/glossary/au.html

 

               < asteroids and comets >

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/planets/asteroidpage.html

               < comet plunging into the Sun >

http://www.space.com/11838-photo-comet-plunges-sun-solar-storm.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Shoemaker%E2%80%93Levy_9

http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/comets/SOHO_sungrazers.html

                http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/20011025comet.html

                http://marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/education/class/paul/orbits.html

                < orbital mechanics >

http://www.braeunig.us/space/orbmech.htm

              < Solar radiation - Encyclopedia of Earth >

http://www.eoearth.org/article/Solar_radiation

 

                http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/13jun_lunarsporadic.htm

                http://www.spaceweather.com/comets/gallery_mcnaught.htm

                http://www.spaceweather.com/comets/gallery_cometswan.html

 

Google:  < lunar impact craters >

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/expmoon/science/craterstructure.html

               < the three body problem >

http://pages.physics.cornell.edu/sethna/teaching/sss/jupiter/jupiter.htm

 

               < searching antarctic ice for meteorites >

http://www.psrd.hawaii.edu/Feb02/meteoriteSearch.html

Google:   < principal lunar craters >

http://www.fourmilab.ch/earthview/lunarform/cratallp.html

                < antarctic meteorites >

http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/index.cfm

 

             < escape velocity of the nine planets >

http://www.nineplanets.org/data2.html

Google:  < chicago 2003 may 6 meteorite >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030506.html

http://www.psrd.hawaii.edu/Aug04/ParkForest.html

               < large asteroids >

http://www.crystalinks.com/asteroids.html

http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/watchtheskies/toutatis-092804.html

http://www.nineplanets.org/asteroids.html

Google:  < meteor showers > Click on ‘Calendar’ and ‘Periodic’.

http://stardate.org/nightsky/meteors/

             

Google:  < mach number >

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/mach.html

               < tunguska asteroid >

http://www.psi.edu/projects/siberia/siberia.html

http://www.google.com/search?q=tunguska&hl=en&biw=1016&bih=775&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=VXHzTZHEPInYgQf3lbTFCw&sqi=2&ved=0CD4QsAQ

               < barringer asteroid >

http://www.barringercrater.com/

http://www.google.com/search?q=barringer+crater&hl=en&biw=1016&bih=775&prmd=ivnsm&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=6HHzTcDoH8nZgAfZy6HHCw&sqi=2&ved=0CEcQsAQ

http://www.meteorcrater.com/index.php

Note clickable links on top of the page.

Google:   < asteroids and comets >

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/planets/asteroidpage.html

                < shoemaker-levy asteroid home page >

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/comet.html

                < images of the moon >

http://www.google.com/#sclient=psy&hl=en&source=hp&q=images+f+thE+moon&aq=f&aqi=g-sx5&aql=&oq=&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=f47737c79cc7719f&biw=1016&bih=775

http://www.astrosurf.com/cidadao/moon.htm

                < planet mercury >

http://www.solarspace.co.uk/Mercury/mercury.php

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/messenger/main/index.html

21.1. Incoming Asteroids and Debris to Earth’s Vicinity

Google:  < the nine planets >

http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/

Google:  < comets hitting the sun >

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/13/comet-hits-sun-nasa-video_n_861736.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WvTHmIYTNn0

               < comet shoemaker - levy 9 >

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/

               < asteroids and comets >

http://www.kidscosmos.org/kid-stuff/asteroid-facts.html

               < welcome to the planets >

http://www.unmuseum.org/halleycomet.htm

              < the sun and its solar system >

http://www.astronomytoday.com/astronomy/sun.html

               < centrifugal and centripetal forces >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/corf.html

               < milky way galaxy >

http://www.ology.amnh.org/astronomy/milkyway/index.htm

21.2. Comet Tempel-Tuttle’s Debris and Leonid Meteor Showers

Goggle:  < comet tempel-tuttle, the leonid comet >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap021116.html

Cometary Tail:  

http://www.google.com/search?q=cometary+tails&hl=en&biw=1016&bih=775&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=XtbzTa3wLrTUiAKAmqWRBw&sqi=2&ved=0CD0QsAQ

http://www.spaceweather.com/comets/gallery_mcnaught_page12.php

 

To enlarge, click on thumbnail photos.

Google:  < fell october 9, 1992 >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap061119.html

Scroll down on ‘Peekskill photo’ to see a rocky piece of the meteorite that hit the car trunk.

Google:  < escape velocities in celestial mechanics >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbital_mechanics

Google:  < meteoroid hits to hubble telescope >

http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast16nov98_2.htm

21.3. Asteroids from Interstellar and Intergalactic Space

Google:  < extrasolar asteroids >

http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/New_Evidence_Of_Extrasolar_Asteroid_Belt_999.html

 

               < asteroid belts >

http://www.solstation.com/stars/asteroid.htm

               < jpl solar system dynamics >

http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/

               < kinetic energy >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinetic_energy

Google:   < revolution and rotation of the planets >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/solarsys/revolution.html

                < asteroids from outer space >

http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~rwp01/pa019.htm

                < history of asteroids from outer space >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C/2006_P1

From link above:  

Eccentricity:

1.000019[2] (Hyperbolic trajectory)

This number (bigger than number one) eccentricity shows that the comet was in a hyperbolic orbit.  It will never return to this solar system.  It also likely came from outer space from outside our solar system for its only swing around our Sun

http://www.webmesh.co.uk/overlord/protection.htm

                < moon's geological history >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/moon2.html&edu=high

                < planet mercury >

http://www.solarspace.co.uk/Mercury/mercury.php

                < tunguska asteroid >

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n2_v143/ai_13326810

21.4. Annual Meteor Showers

http://www.amsmeteors.org/tag/2011-major-annual-meteor-showers/

21.5. Comets and Large Asteroids

http://meteorite.org/facts.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_event

Google:   < The Landscape on Comet Tempel 1 >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap050706.html

                < asteroids and comets >

http://www.seasky.org/cosmic/sky7a04.html

                < near earth asteroid tracking >

http://neat.jpl.nasa.gov/

                < near earth object program >

http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/

                < the threat and promise of asteroids and comets >

http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/8505/Asteroids.htm

http://pan-starrs.ifa.hawaii.edu/public/asteroid-threat/asteroid_threat.html

                < astronomy picture of the day archive >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html

The link above has Index | Search | Today's Picture | 

                < nasa image of the day gallery >

http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/index.html

Also click on ‘View Image Gallery’ under the small image. Click on image to enlarge it.

 http://www.universetoday.com/am/publish/bang_asteroid_hit.html

Google:  < quaoar >

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/07oct_newworld.htm

Google:  < 1908 asteroid > This site describes many asteroids.

http://whyfiles.org/106asteroid/2.html

Google:   < the moon fact sheet >

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/moonfact.html

                < asteroids and comets >

http://www.stargazer.htmlplanet.com/asteroids_comets.html

                < the solar and heliospheric observatory >

http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/

            < the very latest soho images >

  SOHO = The Solar and Heliospheric  Observatory

http://www.google.com/search?q=the+very+latest+soho+images&hl=en&biw=1016&bih=775&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=HuXzTaKRJ4bgiAKytfSJBw&sqi=2&ved=0CDEQsAQ

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SOHO_EIT_304.jpg

                < asteroid collisions with earth >

http://geo.arc.nasa.gov/sge/jskiles/fliers/all_flier_prose/asteroid_toon/asteroid_toon.html

            < photos of asteroids > 

http://images.google.com/images?q=photos+of+asteroids+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

 To enlarge an image, click on it.  Note that even small asteroids have been ‘nicked’ by other asteroids.

21.6. Asteroids/Comets/Debris Approaching ‘Our’ Moon

Google: < regolith on moon >

http://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&um=1&hl=en&q=regolith+on+moon+&btnG=Search+Images

              < Boeing Celebrates the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11 >

http://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&um=1&hl=en&q=Boeing+Celebrates+the+30th+Anniversary+of+Apollo+11+&btnG=Search+Images

             < neil amstrong's footstep on the moon >

http://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&um=1&hl=en&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&q=+neil+armstrong%27s+footstep+on+the+moon&spell=1

              < lunar meteorites >

http://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&um=1&hl=en&q=lunar+meteorites+&btnG=Search+Images

              < definition of escape velocity >

http://www.cite-sciences.fr/lexique/definition1.php?idmot=165&id_expo=12&lang=an&id_habillage=21&resultat=1&num_page=1

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap051217.html 

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2005/07dec_moonstorms.htm

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap070225.html

http://www.nineplanets.org/luna.html

http://ase.tufts.edu/cosmos/view_picture.asp?id=524

Note on using 3 Browsers: Google Chrome, Safari and Firefox on the author’s Mac Mini Computer with Comcast Cable Internet connection, to open the desired links when editing this “Quick Pick Links” Document:

Google Chrome is consistently the fastest of the three Browsers to open the desired links.

Google Chrome is the only of the other two Browsers on this computer that has about 40 ‘tabs’ above the address bar, each opening a previously ‘looked at’ link.

21.7. Asteroids and Comets Hitting ‘Our’ Moon

Google:  < moon >

http://moon.google.com/

                < lunar impact craters >

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/expmoon/orbiter/orbiter-craters.html

                < ccd images of the moon >

                http://www.astrosurf.com/cidadao/moon.htm

               http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/13jun_lunarsporadic.htm

               http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/1999/ast03nov99_1/

      http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/28apr_skyisfalling.htm?list186835

21.8. Deadly Meteor Showers on the Moon

Google:  < how many acres in a square mile?  >

1 square mile = 640 acres = 2.589998 square kilometers = 2,589,998 square meters

1 square kilometer = 100 hectares = 1,000,000 square meters

Google:   < meteors and meteor showers >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/meteors/showers.html

                < armagh observatory leonid meteors >

http://www.arm.ac.uk/leonid/

                < jpl solar system dynamics >

http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/

< shooting marbles at 16,000 mph > 16,000 MPH = 25,750 km/h = 7.15 km/s= 4.4 mi/s

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070319151522.htm

From link above: “A typical flash involves "a meteoroid the size of a softball hitting the Moon at 27 km/s and exploding with as much energy as 70 kg of TNT.” and

estimate the energies of the softball-size meteoroids that hit the Moon at up to 72 km/s, more than six times the speed of the Ames gun.”  resulting in energy of 500 kg of TNT.  READ THE ARTICLE IN THE LINK.

                < nasa - fireball sightings >

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2005/03nov_taurids.htm

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2005/22dec_lunartaurid.htm?list186835

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/13jun_lunarsporadic.htm

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/061201_moon_impacts.html

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2007/23jan_ltps.htm?list186835

21.9. Asteroids/Comets Hitting Planet Mars, Other Planets and Their Moons

Google:   < the moons of mars >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/mars/moons.html

< planet mars >

http://seds.org/~spider/mars/mars.html

                < planet mercury >

http://www.space.com/11072-photos-mercury-nasa-messenger-mission.html

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/mercury/mercury.html

                < planet venus >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/venus/venus.html

                < quaoar >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap021009.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrometry

21.10. Asteroids/Comets/Debris Coming to the Vicinity of the Sun

Google:  < asteroids and comets >

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/planets/asteroidpage.html

Google:  < comets hitting the sun >

http://www.cnn.com/TECH/space/9806/04/kamikaze.comets/

22.  Living Conditions on Solar Planets and Moons

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_habitability

        

22.1. Mercury

Google:   < mercury >

http://www.nineplanets.org/mercury.html

                < the nine planets >

.

http://www.nineplanets.org/

22.2. Venus

Google:  < venus >

http://www.nineplanets.org/venus.html

22.3. Earth is the Only Known God’s ‘Garden Spot’ in the Universe

http://www.aerospaceguide.net/planet/planetearth.html

22.4. Mars

Google:  < the nine planets > Click on Mars, and on its moons, Phobos and Deimos.

http://www.nineplanets.org/

                < NASA GISS: Science Briefs: Telling Time on Mars >

http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/briefs/allison_02/

22.5. Jupiter

Google:   < the nine planets >

http://www.nineplanets.org/

 Click on Jupiter, and on some of its many moons.

                < comet shoemaker-levy 9 >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Shoemaker%E2%80%93Levy_9

http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/soc/

http://www.windows2universe.org/comets/SL9.html

22.6. Saturn

Google:   < the nine planets >

http://www.nineplanets.org/

Click on Saturn and on some of its many moons.

                < nasa-cassini-huygens >

http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.cfm

                < cassini pictures >

http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/images/index.cfm

                http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cassini/main/index.html

22.7. Uranus

Google:  < the nine planets >

http://www.nineplanets.org/

Click on Uranus and on some of its many moons.

22.8. Neptune

Neptune is not a livable place and neither are its moons.

Google:  < the nine planets >

http://www.nineplanets.org/

Click on Neptune and on some of its moons.

22.9. Pluto

http://www.google.com/search?q=planet+pluto&hl=en&pwst=1&biw=896&bih=768&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=OgP1Te6ILIWDgAeqlcXaCw&ved=0CC4QsAQ

http://www.iau.org/

http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/

 

This site is about the ‘NEW HORIZONS’ probe on its way (2007) to Pluto, arriving there in July 2015, when the same link will have 2015 >>>photos.

http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/mission/whereis_nh.php

Google:  < the nine planets >

http://www.nineplanets.org/

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/homepage.htm

Click on Pluto and on its moon Charon.

               <views of the solar system >  Select English, or another language.  

Click thumbnail pictures.

               < mission to Pluto >

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/newhorizons/main/index.html

23. Size and Shape of the Milky Way Galaxy

Google:  < barnard's star >

http://www.solstation.com/stars/barnards.htm

               < proper motions of stars >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/motion/proper.html

               < andromeda galaxy >

http://images.google.com/images?q=andromeda+galaxy+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

Google:  < table of orbital data for the planets >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/uts/orbits_data.html

Google:   < hubble site >

http://hubble.nasa.gov/news/latest.php

                < andromeda galaxy >

http://www.solstation.com/x-objects/andromeda.htm

                < soho >

http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/

< astronomy picture of the day archive >  

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html

There is a new picture for every day dating back hundreds of days.  Make an effort to see some of these pictures.  This Internet site gets much higher than just a ‘five star rating’ from the author.  Pun is intended.

24.  Water is Essential for Life on Earth

Google:  < cannibalism in uganda and in congo >

http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,1020315,00.html

Google:   < where are blood cells manufactured? >

http://www.bloodbankofalaska.org/about_blood/index.html

                < complexity of the human brain >

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/12/061226095421.htm

                < red and white blood cells >

http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/newton/askasci/1993/biology/bio112.htm

Google:   < human brain >

http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/brain/index.html

                < human eye >

http://health.howstuffworks.com/eye.htm

 

                < human inner ear >

http://www.google.com/search?q=human+inner+ear&hl=en&biw=896&bih=768&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=Uwr1TenMMoLZgAeUgKHPCw&ved=0CCMQsAQ

Google:  < composition of volcanic gases >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcanic_gas

25.  Search for Life Elsewhere in the Universe

Google: < seti >

        

http://weirdnews.aol.com/2011/05/18/seti-at-home-project_n_863338.html

25.1. Possible Life on Inner and Outer Solar Planets

http://www.astro.rug.nl/~onderwys/sterIIproject97/kleefman/index.html

Google:   < comet hale-bopp >

http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/comet/

                < recent comets >

http://www.cometobservation.com/RecentObs.html

                < glossary astronomical unit {AU} >

http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/glossary/au.html

                < technical facts of planet mars >

http://axonchisel.net/etc/space/mars-exp-rover-highlights.html

Google:  < inverse square law >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/isq.html

25.2. Reasons Why Other Solar Planets/Moons are Lifeless

Google:  < overview of the solar system >

http://www.nineplanets.org/overview.html

 

Google:  < kelvin temperature scale >

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0827335.html

Google:  < exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/index.html >

http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/index.html

Google:   < tse-pageos >

http://www.tbs-satellite.com/tse/online/sat_pageos.html

                < solar sail info >

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/S/solar_sail.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_sail

                < solar electromagnetic radiation pressure index >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_pressure

Google;   < meteors and meteor showers >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/meteors/showers.html

 Scroll to see orbits of debris.

            < annual meteor showers >

http://www.saguaroastro.org/content/ANNUALmeteorSHOWERS.htm

Google: < lunar regolith >

http://www.moonminer.com/Lunar_regolith.html

http://www.gigapan.org/gigapans/49131/

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2007/14mar_marbles/

              < escape velocity:planetary reckoning >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escape_velocity

http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/vss/docs/space-environment/2-whats-escape-velocity.html

               < martian atmosphere >

http://starryskies.com/solar_system/mars/martian_atmosphere.html

               < martian dust storms >

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast16jul_1.htm

        

26.  We Will Never Meet Aliens from Extra Solar Planets

         Google:  < nearest 50 stars >

http://www.cosmobrain.com/cosmobrain/res/nearstar.html

              < planetary three-body problem >

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0505169

              < nearest doublet stars >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_star

http://www.irpoyser.co.uk/glossary.php

Google:  < kinetic energy >

http://www.teachersdomain.org/assets/wgbh/hew06/hew06_doc_lpakepe/hew06_doc_lpakepe.pdf

Google:  < cosmic radiation in our galaxy >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation

               < NASA/Marshall Solar Physics >

http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/

 Scroll down to Recent Solar Physics News Stories.

Google:  < peekskill meteorite car >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap061119.html

http://www.nyrockman.com/peekskill.htm

 

         < terrestrial impact craters >

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/tercrate.htm

                          < 10-Accretion of Mass >

http://www.expanding-earth.org/page_10.htm

27.  Keplerian Orbits

Google:  < kepler's laws with animation >

http://www.drennon.org/science/kepler.htm

               < planetary orbital elements >

http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?planets#elem

               < satellite observing: orbital elements >

http://spacelist.org/orbital.shtml

               < physics-celestial mechanics >

http://orca.phys.uvic.ca/~tatum/celmechs.html

Google:   < parabola >

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Parabola.html

                < hyperbola >

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Hyperbola.html

Google:  < foci of an ellipse >

http://www.mathwords.com/f/foci_ellipse.htm

 

Google:  < conic sections >

http://math2.org/math/algebra/conics.htm

Google:  < ellipse calculator >

http://www.cleavebooks.co.uk/scol/callipse.htm

               < orbits of comets >

http://www.drennon.org/science/kepler.htm

http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/segwayed/lessons/cometstale/frame_orbits.html

               < planetary orbits >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbit

               < navy and satellites >

http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/spacesciences/satellites/starshine2.htm

< asteroids and comets >

http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/comets.php

 

28.  Original Building Blocks of all Materials

Google:   < periodic table of elements >

http://www.webelements.com/webelements/scholar/

Google:   < sun's radiation >

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/6f.html

                < vitamin d >

http://www.vitamindcouncil.com/

28.1. Origins of Atoms and Molecules

Google:   < age of the universe >

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_uni/uni_101age.html

                < big bang theory >

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_uni/uni_101bb1.html

                < NOVA online, runaway  universe >

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/universe/

28.3. Did God Do It All?  What Is Controlling Our Sun?

Google:  < red giant stars >

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/971016.html

Google:   < period of sun's orbit around the galactic center >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2002/StacyLeong.shtml

                < the sun - the future of us >

http://www.michielb.nl/sun/leven.htm

                < the milky way galaxy >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/Milkyway.html&edu=mid

28.4. If Not God, Who, Or What Did It All?

Nobody knows.

28.5. Unanswerable Eternal Questions

Answers are coming.    Learning is a never-ending job.

29. Some Details of Earth’s Motions

Google: < rotation of milky way galaxy >

http://cassfos02.ucsd.edu/public/tutorial/MW.html

Google: < earth’s orbit >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth's_orbit

http://www.google.com/search?q=earth%E2%80%99s+orbit&hl=en&biw=896&bih=768&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=sCj1TZniC8Hf0QHc9pDuDA&sqi=2&ved=0CD0QsAQ

Google: < earth’s rotation >

http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/ask/arot.html

Google:   < earth’s four seasons >

http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast161/Unit2/seasons.html

                < astronomy dictionary >

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/glossary/

Google:    < wgs-84 >

http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/wgs84/

http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/images/ww15mgh2.gif

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity_Recovery_and_Climate_Experiment

Click on: 2 How GRACE works

http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/GOCE/SEMY0FOZVAG_0.html

Click on the map and get the HI-RES JPEG (Size: 373 kb)

                 < geodetic reference system 1980 >

http://www.gfy.ku.dk/~iag/handbook/geodeti.htm

                 < mach number >

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/mach.html

29.1. Daily Rotation of Earth

Google:    < sidereal time > Sidereal year has 366.24222 sidereal days, EXACTLY one more than in a solar year.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidereal_time

 

< Google: < solar time >  Solar year has 365.24222 solar days

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_time

               < leap seconds >

http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/time/leap/

29.2. Earth’s Annual Revolution (Journey) Around the Sun

.

Google:    < kinetic energy >

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/energy/u5l1c.html

< speed of sound in air >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/souspe3.html

 

Google:   < kepler’s laws >

http://www.astronomynotes.com/history/s7.htm

                < johannes kepler >

http://zebu.uoregon.edu/textbook/planets.html

29.3. Recapping Earth’s Motions We Share Every Day

        Google:  < speed of the milky way in space >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/1999/PatriciaKong.shtml

 < speed of the sun >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/AngelaChan.shtml

 < speed of the earth in orbit >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/IlanaEpstein.shtml

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/970401c.html

Google:  < the datastore - planets >

http://www.solarsystem.org.uk/datamoonstext.html

Google:  < tilt of the moon's orbit >  Run the short video

http://observe.phy.sfasu.edu/courses/ast105/lectures105/chapter02/moon_orbit_tilt_vs_ecliptic.htm

Google:  < andromeda galaxy >

http://haydenplanetarium.org/resources/ava/page/index.php?file=G0601andmilwy

               < interacting and merging galaxies >

http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/HIGHLIGHT/1999/highlight9905_e.html

29.4. Examples of some Slower Earthly Speeds

Google:  < measuring land subsidence from space >

http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-051-00/

http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs06903/

http://www.usgs.gov/science/science.php?term=624

http://www.geodesy.miami.edu/sar.html

Google:  < earth’s interior >

http://geophysics.ou.edu/geomechanics/notes/heatflow/global_heat_flow.htm

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/earthint.htm

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/interior/

http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/platetectonics/1.php 

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/309/5731/87

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/interior.html

http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html

               < isostasy >

http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Display.cfm?Term=isostasy

http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0006406.html

http://www.homepage.montana.edu/~geol445/hyperglac/isostasy1/

http://www.homepage.montana.edu/~geol445/hyperglac/sealevel2/

http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/ice/lec09/lec9.htm

http://www.iag-aig.org/attach/89239e4fcab8a1098cedfc494a7eb67b/G03-heckwild_paper.pdf

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0040195183900987

               < last ice age >

http://nature.ca/notebooks/english/iceage.htm

http://www.scotese.com/lastice.htm

http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nerc130k.html

http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nerc.html

http://www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/ice_ages/

http://earth.rice.edu/MTPE/cryo/cryosphere/topics/ice_age.html

               < archimedes’ principle >

http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/blowballast/sub/work2.htm

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0804583.html

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pbuoy.html

http://physics.weber.edu/carroll/Archimedes/principle.htm

               < isostatic equilibrium >

http://www.maden.hacettepe.edu.tr/dmmrt/dmmrt613.html

http://www.tectonic-forces.org/pt08.htm

http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/school/moviepage/06.01.25.html

http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewTopic/Isostatic-Equilibrium.topicArticleId-9605,articleId-9557.html

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v283/n5748/abs/283651a0.html

               < isostasy and gravity >

http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/visualization/collections/IsosGrav.html

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000mpse.conf...51G

               < ice ages >

http://www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/ice_ages/why_4_cool_periods.html

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/ice_age/

http://www.iceagenow.com/

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/mammals/Iceagemammals.shtml

http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=7500&tid=282&cid=9126

http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4g1u662181vl47l/

I Link above is author’s article.  In it is shown that should the present Antarctic ice masses melt, world oceans would not climb up to the present +65-meter elevation contour line as has appeared in the literature. The rise in the observed mean sea level at the shorelines of world oceans would only be 10 to 15 meters.  The 65 meters is now (2011) about 80 meters.

               < milankovitch cycles >

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Milankovitch/

http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/milankovitch.html

http://www.homepage.montana.edu/~geol445/hyperglac/time1/milankov.htm

http://deschutes.gso.uri.edu/~rutherfo/milankovitch.html

http://geography.about.com/od/learnabouttheearth/a/milankovitch.htm

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/climate/cli_sun.html

http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~polsen/nbcp/cmintro.html

30.  Orbits of Solar Planets

Google:   < orbits of solar planets >

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/charchart.cfm

                < orbital properties of the solar system >

http://zebu.uoregon.edu/astr121.html

                < the nine planets >

http://history.nasa.gov/SP-345/contents.htm

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/index.html

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/98/22/12342

Google:  < jpl solar system dynamics >

http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/

31.  Time Keeping, Basic Units Of Time

.  

Google:   < annual trigonometric parallax >

http://www.answers.com/topic/parallax?cat=health

http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/121/lecture-2/parallax.html

http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Ast162/Movies/parallax.html

See how the nearby ‘red-dot’ star seems to move among the more distant stars as the Earth revolves around in its 1 AU radius annual orbit.

 

                < zodiac constellations >

http://homepage.mac.com/kvmagruder/bcp/zodiacal/zoo.htm

http://naggum.no/lugm-time.html

http://www.time.gov/exhibits.html

Find official U.S, standard time to the nearest second 24/7/365 when you click it:

http://nist.time.gov/timezone.cgi?Eastern/d/-5/java

 

http://tf.nist.gov/general/glossary.htm

Google:   < definition of one second >

http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci524077,00.html

                < nist time and frequency division >

http://tf.nist.gov/ 

http://www.nist.gov/pml/div688/faq.cfm

http://tf.nist.gov/general/faq.htm

Google:  < angular momentum >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/amom.html

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/solarsys/angmom.html

http://www.astronomynotes.com/angmom/s1.htm

http://library.thinkquest.org/3042/angular.html

Google:  < leap seconds >

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/leapsec.html

http://tf.nist.gov/pubs/bulletin/leapsecond.htm

http://www.ucolick.org/~sla/leapsecs/onlinebib.html

http://www.ucolick.org/~sla/leapsecs/

http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/05210/545823.stm

31.1. Sidereal Time

Google:  < sidereal day >

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/SiderealDay.html

Google:    < earth's orbit around the sun >

http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0408/es0408page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization

Start the video in the link above.

                 < leap years >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/acloc.html

http://www.timeanddate.com/date/leapyear.html

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/LeapYear.html

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/GregorianCalendar.html

http://www.infoplease.com/spot/gregorian1.html

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/JulianCalendar.html

http://astro.nmsu.edu/~lhuber/leaphist.html

32.  Compass Directions, Azimuths and Bearings

Google:  < azimuths >

http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/linksa/comp.html

If you need to compute locations for points, use azimuths. Don’t mess with bearings!

               < compass directions >

http://hes.ucfsd.org/curricu/mapglobe/index.html

               < compass bearings on maps >

http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/factsheets/fs03501.html

Google:  < ngs faqs >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/faq.shtml

               < product overview theodolite from wild heerbrugg >

http://www.wild-heerbrugg.com/theodolites.htm

               < geodesy products from wild heerbrugg >

http://www.wild-heerbrugg.com/

http://www.swisstek.com/kern_swiss.htm

Google:   < magnetic compass >

http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/a/Compass.htm

http://www.learn-orienteering.org/old/lesson3.html

                < gps positioning >

http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps.html

http://www.gpsy.com/gpsinfo/

http://www.spacetoday.org/Satellites/GPS.html

http://www.gpsworld.com/gpsworld/

http://www.globalpositioningsystems.co.uk/?PHPSESSID=6774a8c9e8b6e94897183bb8654a693a

 33.  Geodetic (= Geographic) Coordinates

33.1. Latitudes on Earth

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latitude

33.2. Longitudes on Earth

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longitude

Google:   < deflections of the vertical >

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1990/89JB03782.shtml

http://www.dekoepel.nl/Geodetic-Astronomy.html

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1979IAUS...82...67O

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/Geodesy4Layman/TR80003B.HTM

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=4043269

                < geoid >

http://kartoweb.itc.nl/geometrics/Reference%20surfaces/body.htm

http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0703/geoid1of3.html

http://dgfi2.dgfi.badw-muenchen.de/geodis/GRAV/Geoid.html

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/GEOID/geoid_def.html

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/GEOID/        

                < geoid undulations >

http://www.usna.edu/Users/oceano/pguth/website/so432web/GeoidMap.htm

http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/pwessel/papers/1994/GRL_94/grl_94.html

33.3. Topographic Elevations above the Mean Sea Level

Google:   < national geodetic survey >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/

                < highs and lows. topography and isostasy >

http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/topography/topography.html

                < us naval observatory gps operations >

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/gps.html

                < us navstar global positioning system >

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/gpsinfo.html

                < north and south latitudes and longitudes >

http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_latlong.html

                < topographic elevations >

http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/topo/globe.html

                   < understanding topographic maps >

http://imnh.isu.edu/digitalatlas/geog/basics/topo.htm

                   < cartographic maps >

http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/

                < trigonometric leveling >

http://www.tpub.com/content/engineering/14070/css/14070_122.htm

33.4. Celestial Methods for Positioning

Google:   < loran >  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LORAN 

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) and Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) ceased transmitting LORAN-C (and joint CHAYKA) signals in 2010.[2][3].   Loran was importsnt some 50 years ago.

                < geodetic surveying 1940-1990 >

http://geodesy.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/geodetic_surveying_1940.html

http://www.history.noaa.gov/stories_tales/geod1.html

http://geodesy.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/pub_index.html

http://www.johann-sandra.com/surveying/land-surveying-links.htm

Google:   < satellite triangulation by noaa >

http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/brs/geind1.htm

http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/corps/geodesy.html

http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/corps/index.html

                < satellite triangulation >

http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/foundations/satellite_geodesy/welcome.html

                < us navy satellite transit system >

http://support.radioshack.com/support_tutorials/gps/gps_tmline.htm

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984NavPa..32..425H

http://www.esg.montana.edu/gl/usa/125.00024.000065.00050.00012000676a3.html

 

Click anywhere on this map and get approximate coordinates, elevations and some other information for that location, (elevations, etc.), The author took a look at the Great Lakes, Salt Lake in Utah, Pikes Peak in Colorado, Lake Okeechobee in Florida and few other spots.

33.5. GPS, The Global Positioning System

NOTICE TO USERS

Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command is consolidating the command's web presence in accordance with Department of Defense (DoD) and Navy guidance. The U.S. Naval Oceanography portal will be the single access point for all public facing Meteorology and Oceanography products and services. This publicly-accessible portal is currently online at http://www.usno.navy.mil and is being populated. In the near future, non-DoD users will be redirected to this portal.

DoD customers can access all operational data, products and services via the NIPRnet Navy Enterprise Portal Oceanography site athttps://nepoc.oceanography.navy.mil/catalog/index.html (CAC required).

To get to the link     www.usno.mil

       click link below and select the area:

http://www.google.com/#sclient=psy&hl=en&source=hp&q=www.usno.navy.mil%2Fusno%2Fastronomical-applications&aq   =2&aqi=g5&aql=&oq=&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=f47737c79cc7719f&biw=874&bih=745


This Portal has 5 Portals (Icons),  select USNO for: The United States Naval Observatory (USNO)


 

Historical items leading to the GPS:

Google : < sextants >

http://www.nauticalantiques.com/sextants2.htm

http://www.stanleylondon.com/sextsext.htm

http://antiques.listings.ebay.com/Maritime_Sextants_W0QQsacatZ37971QQsocmdZListingItemList

 

               < celestial navigation data >

http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/celnavtable.html

 

               < us navy navsat satellite system >

http://www.nasm.si.edu/gps/before.html

http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/nav/transit.htm

Google:  < the global positioning system >

http://www.gps.gov/

http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps.html

http://books.google.com/books?id=FAHk65slfY4C&dq=the+global+positioning+system+&pg=PP1&ots=NJOvHl_RhF&sig=Oy3D69YuQLCAhq05oIJhbNgKGQA&prev=http://www.google.com/search%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dthe%2Bglobal%2Bpositioning%2Bsystem%2B%26btnG%3DSearch&sa=X&oi=print&ct=title

 

http://www.trimble.com/gps/index.shtml

http://www.aero.org/education/primers/gps/index.html

Google:   < us naval observatory gps operations >

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/gps.html

                < awc military space >

http://space.au.af.mil/doctrine.htm

http://space.au.af.mil/

http://www.umuc.edu/mil/awc.shtml

Google:  < quecreek mine rescue >

http://www.roadsideamerica.com/attract/PASOMrescue.html

http://www.quecreekrescue.org/

http://www.post-gazette.com/localnews/20020729mineindex9.asp

http://pittsburgh.about.com/cs/pictures/l/bl_quecreek_1.htm

Surveyors using GPS found the place soon enough where to drill the shaft to successfully rescue the trapped miners.

33.6. Astronomical Positioning

Google:  < daily motions of stars >

http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/121/lecture-2/daily.html

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap090909.html

Google:   < earth as an ellipsoid >

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_ellipsoid

               < astronomical positioning >

http://www.jgiesen.de/elevaz/basics/index.htm

http://www.springerlink.com/content/01936j083x008740/

The link above is one article written by the author and seems to be on sale by Springer for $34.95, while the whole book can be bought: Hardcover $35.38, Softcover $25.38.

The abstract:

A new reduction method using x, y, z – coordinates is derived for astrolabe observations.  By this method, the latitude and the longitude of the station is computed without the need of a priori knowledge of the station position.  This method is significant development in data reduction of astrolabe and other almucantar observations due to its mathematical exactness, simplicity and the ease of handling the associated statistics.

http://www.aiaa.org/content.cfm?pageid=406&gTable=mtgpaper&gID=67335

Click to see the first page.

Google:   < usno 6-inch transit circles >

http://ad.usno.navy.mil/inst/6inch/

                < theodolites >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transit_instrument

http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/theodolites/welcome.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodolite

                < meridian transit instruments >

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44214/telescope

http://www.saao.ac.za/~wpk/tov1882/meride.html

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0849275.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meridian_circle

                < western astrolabes >

http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/waslabe.html

http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/astrolabe/exhibition/49033.htm

http://alabe.com/dealers.html

http://astrolabes.org/

                < the united states naval observatory >

http://www.usno.navy.mil/

http://www.astrolabes.org/history.htm

                < the pzt zenith tube website >

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/zenith+tube

http://www.redwhiteandblue.org/christian/plstexts/ZENITH.HTM

< astronomical star catalogs >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_catalogue

http://ad.usno.navy.mil/       plus  

http://tdc-www.harvard.edu/software/star.html

http://tdc-www.harvard.edu/software/catalogs/

http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/W3Browse/star-catalog/sao.html

34.  Celestial Coordinates, Declination and Right Ascensions

Google:   < diurnal circles >

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0815660.html

                < coordinates on celestial sphere >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/coordinates.html

                < celestial coordinate systems >

http://library.thinkquest.org/29033/begin/coordinate.htm

                < celestial coordinates >

http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/segwayed/lessons/findplanets/coordinates.html

                < definition of right ascension on celestial sphere >

http://www.answers.com/topic/right-ascension?cat=technology

                < precession and nutation of earth's spin axis >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth's_rotation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutation

http://www.hartrao.ac.za/nccsdoc/slalib/sun67.htx/node203.html

                < sidereal time >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidereal_time

http://astrosun2.astro.cornell.edu/academics/courses//astro201/sidereal.htm

< what does obliquity mean? >

http://www.obliquity.com/info/meaning.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axial_tilt

34.1. Declinations

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declination

34.2. Right Ascensions

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_ascension

Google:  < precession of earth's rotation axis >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/precession.html

                < noaa geodetic surveying >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/

 

                < celestial sphere >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/celestial/celestial.html

                < altitude of celestial pole >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celestial_pole

                < positional astronomy >

http://star-www.st-and.ac.uk/~fv/webnotes/index.html

 

                < terrestrial sphere >

http://star-www.st-and.ac.uk/~fv/webnotes/chapter1.htm

                < great circle on earth >

http://home.hiwaay.net/~jalison/

 

Google:   < calculating stellar positions >

http://astronexus.com/node/38

http://astronexus.com/node/37

                < cartesian coordinates

http://www.geom.uiuc.edu/docs/reference/CRC-formulas/node39.html

http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/lessons/CartesianCoordinate/

34.3. Proper Motion

Google:   < proper motion of stars >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proper_motion

                < barnard's star >

http://reductionism.net.seanic.net/Astrophotos/barnard/barnard.html

                < boss general catalog of stars >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_astronomical_catalogues

34.4. Precession of Earth

Google:   < geodetic precession >

http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2000/geodetic.htm

                < precession of earth >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/precession.html

http://astro.wsu.edu/worthey/astro/html/lec-precession.html

                < precession of rotating earth >

http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Sprecess.htm

                < precession of earth's rotation axis >

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=2015

                < earth rotation history >

http://webexhibits.org/calendars/timeline.html

http://www.iers.org/MainDisp.csl?pid=23-35

34.5. The 23.5 Degree Tilt of Earth’s Spin Axis

Google:  < reasons for the seasons >

http://www.uwm.edu/~kahl/CoVis/Seasons/

 

               < perihelion, aphelion >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/physical_science/physics/mechanics/orbit/perihelion_aphelion.html

               < the seasons and the earth's orbit - milankovitch cycles >

http://www.dustbunny.com/afk/skywonders/orbit/opposition.html

http://www.homepage.montana.edu/~geol445/hyperglac/time1/milankov.htm

               < the earth's rotation >

http://hea-www.harvard.edu/ECT/the_book/Chap1/Chapter1.html

               < orbits and the ecliptic plane >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/eclip.html

Google:   < celestial coordinate system >

http://www.kidscosmos.org/kid-stuff/celestial.html

                < equinoxes and solstices >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equinox

http://www.ehow.com/facts_5592978_equinox-solstice_.html

                < hipparchus >

http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/hipparchus.html

34.6. Nutation

Google:   < earth nutation visualized >

http://www.pietro.org/Astro_Util_StaticDemo/MethodsNutationVisualized.htm

                < wobbling of earth's rotation axis >

http://www.esse.ou.edu/fund_concepts/Fundamental_Concepts1/Solar_System/Earths_Rotation.htm

                < nodes of the orbit >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbit_of_the_Moon

               < astronomy answers: planetary phenomena >

http://www.astro.uu.nl/~strous/AA/en/verschijnselen.html

34.7. Chandler’s Wobble

Google:  < chandler’s wobble of earth >

http://science.howstuffworks.com/question442.htm

               < the wandering path of chandler's wobble >

http://www.google.com/search?q=chandler's+wobble&hl=en&biw=924&bih=742&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=0fn3TaiIMY76sAOp6OH2DA&sqi=2&ved=0CFwQsAQ

http://www.michaelmandeville.com/earthmonitor/polarmotion/plots/chandler_wobble_plots.htm

               < earth's mass, density and moment of inertia >

http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/202/lectures/intro/mass.htm

               < moment of inertia >

http://golf.about.com/od/faqs/f/moi.htm

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mi.html

35.  Earth’s Crust, Mantle and Core in the Balloon Model

Google:     < earth's interior >

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/interior/

                  < the interior of the earth >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Interior_Structure/overview.html

                  < isostasy >

http://www.homepage.montana.edu/~geol445/hyperglac/isostasy1/

http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Display.cfm?Term=isostasy

                  < isostacy >

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/Isostacy.html

http://www.google.com/search?q=isostasy&hl=en&sa=X&biw=924&bih=742&prmd=ivnsb&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&ei=4fv3TbjxEarYiALQsbD9DA&ved=0CDYQsAQ

                  < metric system temperature scales >

http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/temps.htm

http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/internat.htm

36.  Gravity, Gravitation, Accelerations and Decelerations

Google:   < gravitation by Isaac Newton >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton.html

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.html

http://www.phy.hr/~dpaar/fizicari/xnewton.html

http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/newtlife.html

http://www.dist399.net/stauffer/Physics/gravity/Newton.html

                < physics in the amusement parks >

http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/

Google:  < gravitation and gravity >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitation

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0858452.html

Google:  < ear clinic information center - balance system 101 >

http://www.earinfosite.org/101.htm

http://www.epleymaneuver.com/Default2.htm

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=21685

37.  Moon’s Gravity

Google:  < solar radiation pressure >

http://www.blazelabs.com/f-g-rpress.asp

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/RadiationPressure.html

Google:   < gravity on the moon >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2004/MichaelRobbins.shtml

http://www.moonconnection.com/moon_gravity.phtml

 

                < escape velocities >

http://www.physlink.com/Education/AskExperts/ae158.cfm

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vesc.html

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=21685

               < radiation pressure by the sun >

http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=radiation%20pressure

38. Sun’s Gravity

Google:     < solar rotation >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrington_rotation

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/sun/rotation.shtml

                  < solar gravity >

http://van.physics.uiuc.edu/qa/listing.php?id=184

http://www.einstein-online.info/en/spotlights/light_deflection/index.html

http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx?c=ss&id=75

                  < soho >

http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/

39.  Examples of High Accelerations

Google:  < deceleration project of Paul Stapp >

http://www.ejectionsite.com/stapp.htm

http://www.stapp.org/stapp.shtml

Google:   < what is the acceleration of gravity >

http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~vawter/PhysicsNet/Topics/Gravity/AccOfGravity.html

                < vectors >

http://id.mind.net/~zona/mstm/physics/mechanics/vectors/vectors.html

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/Phys/Class/vectors/u3l1a.html

http://www.netcomuk.co.uk/~jenolive/homevec.html

40.  Back to Earth’s Gravity

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity_of_Earth

40.1. Earth’s Gravity and Centrifugal Acceleration

Google:   < international gravity formula >

http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/international+gravity+formula

               < world geodetic system 1984 – background >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System

http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/publications/tr8350.2/tr8350_2.html

Google: < coriolis force >

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/CoriolisForce.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coriolis_effect

40.2. Earth’s Gravitational Pull has Deformed ‘our’ Moon

.

Google:   < librations of the moon >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap991108.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libration

 

                < the moon >

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/moonfact.html

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/planets/moonpage.html

                < astronomy picture of the day archive >

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html

In link above, click on: 2005 November 13, where lunation is explained. Same thing below.

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap051113.html

        http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2005/07dec_moonstorms.htm?list186835

Google:    < diameter of the moon >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2002/SamuelBernard1.shtml

                 < tidal effects of moon and sun >

http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/moontides/

http://www.astronomynotes.com/gravappl/s10.htm

 

                 < tidal forces >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/glossary/tidal_forces.html

                 < newton's law of gravitation >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.html

                 < latitude dependent changes in gravitational acceleration >

http://gretchen.geo.rpi.edu/roecker/AppGeo96/lectures/gravity/latitude.html

                 < moon fact sheet >

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/moonfact.html

http://www.astrologyclub.org/articles/nodes/nodes.htm

     

40.3. Direction of Gravity, Zenith (= Up) and Nadir (= Down)

Google:  < celestial star coordinates >

http://www.kidscosmos.org/kid-stuff/celestial.html

Google:  < inner ear, balance 101 >

http://healing.about.com/od/sound/a/secrets_voice_3.htm

40.4. Earth Is Round due to its Gravitation

Google:  < the moons of mars >

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Mars&Display=Moons

         < the moons of Saturn >

http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/science/moons/index.cfm

http://cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2007/07/19/279275.aspx

Google:  < inertia and mass >

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/newtlaws/u2l1b.cfm

http://www.controleng.ca/inertia-mass-calculator.htm

Google: < human inner ear and balance sensors >

http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/research/2006/earbot.html

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=21685

Google:   < geoid undulations >

http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/GOCE/SEMY0FOZVAG_0.html

http://kartoweb.itc.nl/geometrics/Reference%20surfaces/body.htm

                < ocean surface topography from space >

http://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/

                < comet halley >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/comets/halley.html

41.  World Athletic Records and Gravity

Google:  < alan shepard >

http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/she0pro-1

Google:   < mass and spring gravity measurements >

http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/ES304/MODULES/GRAV/NOTES/spring.html

                < gravimeter >\

http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/99144e.html

http://www.google.com/search?q=absolute+gravimeter&hl=en&biw=1031&bih=691&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=LHX6TeqVA-HhiAL_j8TpBA&sqi=2&ved=0CDkQsAQ

http://ares.jsc.nasa.gov/HumanExplore/Exploration/EXLibrary/docs/ApolloCat/Part1/LSG.htm

< lunar surface gravimeter >

http://www.tsgc.utexas.edu/images/spacecraft/apollo17/experiment3.html

Google: < athletic world records >

http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/records/

41.1. Javelin Throw

Google:  < jan zelezny >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Železný

http://thelongestlistofthelongeststuffatthelongestdomainnameatlonglast.com/long145.html

http://www.olympic.org/uk/athletes/profiles/bio_uk.asp?PAR_I_ID=61062

Google:  < olympic records >

http://www.google.com/search?q=absolute+gravimeter&hl=en&biw=1031&bih=691&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=LHX6TeqVA-HhiAL_j8TpBA&sqi=2&ved=0CDkQsAQ#hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=olympic+feild+records&oq=olympic+feild+records&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=349533l368300l0l21l21l0l11l2l0l259l1619l0.9.1l10&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=1b0b5ddc2bbf3f17&biw=1031&bih=691

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shot_put

42.  Gravity Measurements

Google:   < isaac newton >

http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/newtlife.html

                < centrifugal acceleration on rotating earth >

http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/336k/lectures/node64.html

Google: < the rotating earth >

http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Srotfram1.htm

              < standard atmospheric pressure >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pman.html

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/barfor.html

Google:   < martian atmosphere >

http://starryskies.com/solar_system/mars/martian_atmosphere.html

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/M/Marsatmos.html

                < types of particles and forces >

http://hepwww.rl.ac.uk/Pub/Phil/glossary.html

http://www.particleadventure.org/other/proj_sum.html

Google:   < gravity meters >

http://www.lacosteromberg.com/

                < gwr instruments >

http://www.gwrinstruments.com/

                < neutron stars >

http://www.astro.umd.edu/~miller/nstar.html

Google:   < physics:  newton’s law of gravitation >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_law_of_universal_gravitation

                < acceleration in physics >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acceleration_due_to_gravity

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/Acceleration.html

                < centrifugal force >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/corf.html

http://phun.physics.virginia.edu/topics/centrifugal.html

                < earth’s gravity >

http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMCO8NQS7E_index_0.html

 

Google:   < nist >

http://www.nist.gov/

                < the nine planets >

http://www.nineplanets.org/

                < newton's law of gravitation >

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9055621/Newtons-law-of-gravitation

43.  Gravitational Pulls on the Moon

              < moon fact sheet >

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/moonfact.html

              < kepler’s laws with animation >

http://www.planetpace.com/planet/?keplers-laws,15

              < ernest w brown >

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Mathematicians/Brown.html

http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/BruceMedalists/Brown/index.html

43.1. More on Physical Meanings of Accelerations

Google:  < free falling objects >

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1dkin/u1l5c.cfm

Google:  < international gravity formula >

http://geophysics.ou.edu/solid_earth/notes/potential/igf.htm

43.2. Gravity Anomalies

Google:    < gravity anomalies >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity_anomaly

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/Geodesy4Layman/TR80003C.HTM

                 < prospecting using gravity anomalies >

http://gdcinfo.agg.nrcan.gc.ca/app/bathgrav/small_e.html

44. Geoid (= Mean Sea Level) Undulations

Google:   < spheroids. ellipsoids and geoids >

http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.2/index.cfm?TopicName=About_the_geoid%2C_ellipsoid%2C_spheroid_and_datum%2C_and_how_they_are_related

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System

http://elearning.algonquincollege.com/coursemat/viljoed/gis8746/concepts/geodesy/spheroid.htm

                < geoid and equipotential surfaces >

http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/GOCE/SEMY0FOZVAG_0.html

Click on the map above to enlarge

http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-190835/equipotential-surface

                < the geoid >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/GEOID/

                < topex >

http://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/

                < geoid map >

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/GRACE_Revised/page3.html

44.1. Plumb Line Deflections Affect Astronomical Coordinates

Google:   < deflections of the vertical >

http://www.britannica.com/eb/art?id=1160&type=A

 

                < angular degrees minutes and seconds >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degree_(angle)

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/213449

                < nautical mile >

http://www.onlineconversion.com/faq_07.htm

Google:   < solar semi-diameter >

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A&A...325..825N

                < nasa eclipse home page >

http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/eclipse.html

 

44.2. Elevations and Depths are Measured from the Geoid

Google:   < 1-mean sea level, gps, and the geoid >

http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0703/geoid1of3.html

                < vertical datum >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/faq.shtml

                < topex >

http://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/

                < leveling instruments >

http://www.gmat.unsw.edu.au/currentstudents/ug/projects/f_pall/html/level.html

http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=50&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=kivioja&OS=kivioja&RS=kivioja

The link above describes the US patent on Mercury Leveling Instruments belonging to the author

                < trigonometric leveling >

http://www.tpub.com/content/engineering/14070/css/14070_122.htm

Google:  < sea level variations >

http://www.flatrock.org.nz/topics/environment/poseidon_adventure.htm

Google:  < average temperature of ocean waters >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/temp.html

Google:   < mean sea level >

http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0703/geoid1of3.html

                < geoid >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/GEOID/

                <ngs tidal gages >

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/engineering/hydraulics/hydrology/hec25c6.cfm

                <usgs tidal gages >

http://www.state.nj.us/dep/njgs/geodata/dgs02-5.htm

                <vertical datum >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/faq.shtml

                < ngs faqs >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/

                < usgs leveling >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/web/about_ngs/history/Berry1.pdf

http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/tm3A19/

                < ngs leveling >

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/heightmod/Leveling/requirements.html

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/web/about_ngs/history/Zilkoski1991.pdf

                < noaa/ceob tide glossary >

http://www.co-ops.nos.noaa.gov/publications/glossary2.pdf

                < mean sea level, gps and the geoid >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_sea_level_rise

The sea level rise has been 1.8 mm per year for the past century

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=muller-hearing&page=2

According to link above, human caused global warming has been 0.6 C degrees in 50 years: 1957 – 2007. The total global warming has been a 1.2 C degree rise in the sane 50-year period.  Go to page 2 of 4 in the link.

                < mean sea level variations >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_level

                < highest tides >

http://museum.gov.ns.ca/fossils/protect/tides.htm

                < ice and snow sublimation >

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesublimation.html

                < 10(ae) glacial processes >

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10ae.html

Google:   < usgs mapping information topographic map symbols >

http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/symbols/reading.html

                < ngdc-bathymetry, topography and relief >

http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/relief.html

http://www.tvkim.com/watch/1048/kims-picks-google-earth-gets-ocean-layer?utm_medium=nl&utm_source=notd&utm_content=2011-06-10-article&utm_campaign=end-g

Google:   < physical geodesy is everywhere >

http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/publications/geolay/TR80003A.html

                < features of sea level change >

http://www.geographypages.co.uk/sealevel.htm

                < nasa-as sea level rises, beaches shrink >  

http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/lookingatearth/Sea_level_rises.html

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/features.cfm?feature=429

Google:  < usgs open file report 96-000 >

http://geochange.er.usgs.gov/data/sea_level/ofr96000.html

               < coriolis force >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coriolis_effect

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/CoriolisForce.html

http://www.google.com/search?q=coriolis+force&hl=en&authuser=0&biw=885&bih=776&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=Ke_8TY-tJMvciALnqvHyBA&sqi=2&ved=0CDkQsAQ

               < sea level changes >

http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4g1u662181vl47l/

This is an article published by the author in September 1967.  It is still 90 % accurate.

45. Earth’s Detailed Size and Shape

Google:  < erathostenes' method >

http://eduwww.mikkeli.fi/opetus/myk/kv/comenius/erathostenes.htm

               < noaa the elements of geodesy >

http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/geodesy/geo05_horizdatum.html

Google:   < the earth as an ellipsoid >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_ellipsoid

                < us geological survey >

http://www.usgs.gov/

.

Google:  < national geophysical data center >

http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/

               < bathymetric maps >

http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/maps/nos_intro.html

Google:  < sea level topography >

http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/GOCE/SEMY0FOZVAG_0.html

In the link above click on the map to enlarge it.

             < topex global sea level >

http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/SAT/

               < geoid undulations >

http://www.usna.edu/Users/oceano/pguth/website/so432web/GeoidMap.htm

               < earth ellipsoid measurements >

http://uhaweb.hartford.edu/gate/ce250/lecture_2/tsld003.htm

Google:  < deepest ocean >

http://www.extremescience.com/DeepestOcean.htm

               < exploring deep ocean floor >

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/exploring.html

Google:  < highest mountain peaks of the world >

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001771.html

               < highest mountain peaks >

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0777280.hml

45.1. Earth’s Shape in the Room Size Balloon Model

Google:  < earth: geodetic and geophysical data >

http://www.grdl.noaa.gov/SAT/gfo/gdr_hbk.htm

               < the earth as an ellipsoid >

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EM&P...91...31B

Google: < welcome to the usgs - us geological survey >

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/

46.  Traveling on the Round Earth

Google:  < antipode on earth >

http://www.antipodemap.com/

Google:  < great circle distances on earth >

http://williams.best.vwh.net/gccalc.htm

Google:  < definition of angular unit of one radian >

http://searchsmb.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid44_gci528762,00.html

47.  Tides

47.1. Lunar and Solar Tidal Effects on Rotating Earth

Google:  < sun's mass >

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/sun/sunsize.shtml

               < mass of the moon >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2002/AdaLi.shtml

Google:   < lunar tides >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/tides.html

                < earth tides >

http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1998/98_05_28.html

                < solar tides >

 

http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/tides/tides06_variations.html

                < atmospheric tides >

http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=atmospheric-tide1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_tide

                < the moon and tides >

http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/moontides/

                < tides in bay of fundy >

http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es2406/es2406page01.cfm?chapter_no=investigation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bay_of_Fundy

 

http://www.bayoffundy.com/

http://www.gma.org/undersea_landscapes/Bay_of_Fundy/

Google:   < tidal corrections to gravity measurements >

http://www.astro.oma.be/ICET/icetdb/2_17.html

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...10330231L

http://www.springerlink.com/content/9g839885j5003k27/

http://www.springerlink.com/content/p764u6532n476851/

http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/cgps_tg/casestudy/case4_files/index.html

                < tidal effect on gravity >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_force

Google:   < moon's 18.6 years >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_standstill

http://www.umass.edu/sunwheel/pages/moonteaching.html

                < noaa, tide predicting machines >

http://www.math.sunysb.edu/~tony/tides/machines.html

http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/predmach.html

http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/predma2.html

http://co-ops.nos.noaa.gov/about2.html

Google:   < noaa, our restless tides >

http://co-ops.nos.noaa.gov/restles3.html

                < mean sea level, gps, and the geoid >

http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0703/geoid2of3.html

                < ocean tides >

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/8r.html

                < earth tides >

http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1998/98_05_28.html

                < tsunamis >

http://www.ess.washington.edu/tsunami/index.html

                < nodal points of ocean tides >

http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/tides/tides.html

                < lunar tides >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/tides.html

                < solar tides >

http://www.hydro.linz.govt.nz/tides/info/tideinfo3/index.asp

                   < celestial coordinate system >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/coordinates.html

Google:  < noaa's national ocean service. tides and water levels >

http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/

               < tides at bay of fundy >

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17305

               < tides of solid earth >

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9031730/Earth-tide

 

                              < ocean tides >

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/8r.html

               

< amplitude of ocean tides >

http://earth.esa.int/brat/html/appli/ocean/tides_en.html

 

               < ocean loading tides >

http://www.oso.chalmers.se/~loading/

http://www.oso.chalmers.se/~hgs/README.html

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AcASn..45...88Z

http://www.springerlink.com/content/j04v896w69435546/

               < perturbations of satellite orbits >

http://www.astro.oma.be/ICET/icetdb/7_8.html

               < usgs earthquake hazards program-latest earthquakes >

http://quake.usgs.gov/recenteqs/Maps/121-36_eqs.htm

               < diego garcia >

http://www.members.tripod.com/carlvillanueva/id22.htm

Google:   < what is a barycenter? >

http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/barycntr.shtml

                < archive of astronomy questions >

http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/astron98.htm

This site has 997 questions and answers.

47.2. Where is the Barycenter of the Earth-Moon System Located?

Google:  < noaa national ocean service: animation of spring and neap tides >

http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/tides/media/supp_tide06a.html

               < the shape of the oceans >

http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/oceans.htm

 < coriolis effects on tides >

http://oceanmotion.org/html/background/tides-basins.htm

http://www.uwgb.edu/DutchS/EarthSC102Notes/102TheOceans.HTM

Google:  < tides and the earth's rotation >

http://bowie.gsfc.nasa.gov/ggfc/tides/intro.html

               < solid earth tides >

http://www.okgeosurvey1.gov/level2/ok.grams/tide.1994MAY24.JUN01/tide.1994MAY24.JUN01.html

               < tides in the atmosphere >

               http://www.du.edu/~jcalvert/geol/tides.htm

48.  The Space around Us

Google:   < dihedral angle >

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DihedralAngle.html

                < celestial poles >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celestial_pole

                < our solar system in milky way galaxy >

http://www.astrodigital.org/astronomy/solarsystemgalaxy.html

Google:  < star constellations >

http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/

Google:  < circumpolar stars >

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-circumpo.html

48.1. No One Knows Physical Locations of Heaven and Hell

Google:  < how many dimensions are there? >

http://cosmicvariance.com/2005/12/07/how-many-dimensions-are-there/

 

49.  Encountered Velocities in the Universe    

 

Google:  < mach number >

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/mach.html

               < speed of sound >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/souspe.html

Google:   < velocity of light >

http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/109N/lectures/spedlite.html

                < mach number >

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/BGA/Corrine/mach_number_act.htm

                < black holes >

http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/black_holes/

                < newton's three laws of motion >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton3laws.html

                < kepler’s laws >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler's_laws_of_planetary_motion

                < moon fact sheet >

http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/MoonFacts.html

50. More about Earth’s Solar Orbit

Google:   < the ellipse >

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Ellipse.html

                < eccentricity of an ellipse >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellipse

                < ellipse calculator >

http://www.csgnetwork.com/volumeellipsoid.html

                < earth’s orbital plane >

http://aom.giss.nasa.gov/srorbpar.html

                < the nine planets >

http://nineplanets.org/

                < solar system overview >

http://www.nineplanets.org/overview.html

                < usno seasons and the earth's orbit >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbit

http://www.bymath.com/studyguide/geo/sec/geo14.htm

Google: < the ellipse >

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Curves/Ellipse.html

http://www.nmm.ac.uk/server/show/conWebDoc.340/setPaginate/No

                < equinoxes and solstices >

http://www.nmm.ac.uk/server/show/conWebDoc.3843

Google:   < jpl solar system dynamics >

http://www.ufoseek.com/Space_Objects_and_Comets/JPL_Solar_System_Dynamics_-_NASA_L2514/

Google:  < standard atmospheric tables >

http://www.digitaldutch.com/atmoscalc/tableoptions1.htm

               < Standard Atmosphere Calculator >

http://www.digitaldutch.com/atmoscalc/

Google:     < main asteroid belt >

http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/M/mainasterbelt.html

                  < shuttle disaster february 1, 2003 >

http://www.aerospaceguide.net/spaceshuttle/columbia_disaster.html

                  < exploding star pictures by hubble >

http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/pr1996023c/

http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/space/08/01/supernova/index.html

                  < interstellar galactic dust and debris measurements >

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9908022v1

http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v31n4/dps99/219.htm

                  < meteorite types >

http://www.alaska.net/~meteor/type.htm

51.  Time

51.1. What Time is it?  What is the Origin of our Time Keeping?

http://www.timekeepingsite.org/calendar_invent.html

51.2. Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) and Leap Seconds

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinated_Universal_Time

Google: < History of time >

http://library.thinkquest.org/C008179/historical/basichistory.html

Google:  < leap seconds >

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/leapsec.html

               < universal coordinated time >

http://hurricanes.noaa.gov/zulu-utc.html

               < systems of time >

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/systime.html

               < mean and apparent solar time >

http://www.tpub.com/content/administration/14220/css/14220_149.htm

               < hour angle of vernal equinox >

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9041191#cite

               < vernal and autumnal equinoxes >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equinox

               < times solstices & equinoxes >

http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/box/equinox.html

\

51.3. Sidereal Time = Star Time

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidereal_time

Google:  < us naval observatory >

http://www.usno.navy.mil/

               < sidereal and solar time >

http://www.jgiesen.de/SiderealTimeClock/index.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_time

               < how to find sidereal time? >

http://www.pietro.org/Astro_Util_StaticDemo/MethodSiderealVSCivil.htm

               < hour angle >

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/HourAngle.html

Google:  < astronomy institutions >

http://www.iers.org/MainDisp.csl?pid=134-197

               < royal greenwich observatory at herstmonceux >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Observatory,_Greenwich

               < us naval observatory >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Naval_Observatory

               < potsdam astronomical observatory >

http://www.aip.de/groups/osra/index_en.html

               < greenwich mean time >

http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/

               < universal time >

http://www.worldtimeserver.com/

51.4. Leap Years by Julian and Gregorian Calendars

Google:  < leap year faq >

http://incompetech.com/gallimaufry/leap.html

               < leap years >

http://www.onlineconversion.com/leapyear.htm

               < galileo galilei >

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Mathematicians/Galileo.html

 

               < julian date converter >

http://www.ask.com/web?q=julian%20date%20converter&askid=2e79e020-8d39-4db1-8936-751286c8a3cd-0-us_gsb&qsrc=999&o=102613&l=dir

http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/JulianDate.html

               < the gregorian calendar >

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/GregorianCalendar.html

               < a walk through time > by NIST

http://physics.nist.gov/GenInt/Time/time.html

               < history of the western calendar >

http://www.polysyllabic.com/?q=calhistory

51.5. Sidereal Years and Mean Solar Years

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_year

51.6. Sundials

Google:  < sundials >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sundial

               < equation of time >

http://www.sundials.co.uk/equation.htm

51.7. Reasons for the Existence of the Equation of Time

Google:  < kepler’s laws >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler's_laws_of_planetary_motion

Google:  < brief history of gyroscopes >

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/scitech/display.cfm?ST_ID=327

Google:  < solstices >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solstice

               < declination of sun >

http://www.wsanford.com/~wsanford/exo/sundials/DEC_Sun.html

               < path of the sun, the ecliptic >

http://www.csulb.edu/~htahsiri/animate/Sun%20in%20ecliptic.html

               < obliquity of the ecliptic >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axial_tilt

http://www.tenspheres.com/researches/precession.htm

               < dihedral angle between two planes >

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Plane.html

52.  Planet Earth, Our Sweet Home

Google:  < UTA Alumni Astronauts - Kalpana Chawla >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalpana_Chawla

                < photographs of earth taken by moon astronauts >

http://starryskies.com/The_sky/events/lunar-2003/multimedia.html

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/apollo11.html

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/moon.htm

Google:   < nearest stars >

http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/extra/nearest.html

                < seti >

http://setiathome.berkeley.edu/

52.1. Reasons Why this Earth is a Habitable Place for Humans

Google:   < solar wind >

http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/Education/wsolwind.html

                < elementary subatomic particles >

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9108593/subatomic-particle

              < spaceweather.com >  With daily information with archives back to 2000.

http://www.spaceweather.com/

52.2. Comparing Earth to Mercury

Google:   < table of planets >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/planets_table.html

                < mercury statistics >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mercury/statistics.html\

52.3. Comparing Earth to Venus

Google:   < planet venus >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/venus/venus.html

                < orbital parameters of planet venus >

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/venusfact.html

                < red giants >

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/971016.html

                < venus statistics >

http://www.windows2universe.org/venus/statistics.html

52.4. Comparing Earth to Mars

Google:  < planet mars >

http://seds.org/~spider/mars/mars.html

               < how far is planet mars from the sun? >

http://www.disabled-world.com/entertainment/hobby/astronomy/mars.php

               < mars statistics >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mars/statistics.html

52.5. Atmospheric Moderation of Temperatures on Mars

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/AlbertEydelman.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_Mars

52.6. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Pluto Are Not Livable Places

Google:  < jupiter statistics >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/jupiter/statistics.html

               < saturn statistics >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/saturn/statistics.html

               < uranus statistics >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/uranus/statistics.html

                  < neptune statisyics >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/neptune/statistics.html

                 < pluto statistics >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/pluto/statistics.html

               < new horizons probe >

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/newhorizons/main/index.html

Google:   < solar system planets >

http://images.google.com/images?q=solar+system+planets+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

                < The Milky Way Galaxy >

http://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&um=1&hl=en&q=The+Milky+Way+Galaxy+&btnG=Search+Images

http://cassfos02.ucsd.edu/public/tutorial/MW.html

53.  The Solar System in the Balloon Model

54.  Global Temperature Moderations by the Atmosphere

Google:  < planetary information table >

http://www.bobthealien.co.uk/table.htm

               < surface temperatures on the moon >

http://www.asi.org/adb/m/03/05/average-temperatures.html

http://www.asi.org/adb/02/05/01/surface-temperature.html

Google:  < temperature scales, nasa >

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/scitech/display.cfm?ST_ID=330

http://quest.nasa.gov/space/teachers/microgravity/notes.html

                < earth's atmosphere >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/atmosphere.html

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/overview.html

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/layers.html

http://www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/atmosphere.html

http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=107

http://images.google.com/images?q=earth's+atmosphere+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

                < temperature on earth's moon >

http://www.tak2000.com/data/planets/luna.htm

http://www.astrobio.net/news/article2354.html

                < dry ice >

http://www.dryiceinfo.com/

http://www.howstuffworks.com/question264.htm

http://www.metacafe.com/watch/106412/dry_ice/

54.1. Glacier on Kilimanjaro Mountain

http://www.journeys.travel/portal/kilimanjaro/kili_facts.html

54.2. A Partial List of the Benefits of our Atmosphere

Google: < Atmospheric Pressure: force exerted by the weight of the air >

http://kids.earth.nasa.gov/archive/air_pressure/

http://kids.earth.nasa.gov/archive/air_pressure/spin.html

http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/circulation/air_pressure_p_1.html

http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_lutgens_atmosphere_10/0,6615,3175200-,00.html

              < The High Altitude Medicine Guide >

http://www.high-altitude-medicine.com/

              < composition of air >

http://mistupid.com/chemistry/aircomp.htm

http://www.physlink.com/Reference/AirComposition.cfm

http://www.uigi.com/air.html

              < gas pressure >

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/pressure.html

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/temptr.html

http://www.indiana.edu/~geog109/topics/10_Forces&Winds/GasPressWeb/PressGasLaws.html

http://www.chm.davidson.edu/ChemistryApplets/GasLaws/Pressure.html

55. Earth’s Interior: Crust, Mantle and Core

Google :  < physical geology - interior of the earth >

http://www.uh.edu/~jbutler/physical/chapter19.html

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/interior/

                < mass of the earth >

mass of Earth = 5.9742 × 1024 kilograms

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2002/SamanthaDong2.shtml

                < earth’s interior >

http://images.google.com/images?q=earth's+interior+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/platetectonics/1.php

< the interior of the earth >

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/earthint.htm

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/interior.html

http://www.sacred-texts.com/earth/jei/index.htm

                < teacher page: viscosity >

http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/ViscosityTe.html

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/mentoring/project_ideas/MatlSci_p019.shtml

                < the core >

http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/Phys-earth-core.html

http://images.google.com/images?q=earth's+core+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

                < the nine planets >

http://images.google.com/images?q=the+nine+planets+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

< usgs inside the earth >  The usgs stands for US Geological Survey.  The following link has a good picture of Earth’s cross-section. 

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/inside.html

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/nca/1906/18april/earthwaves.php

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/topics.php?topicID=61&topic=Earth%20structure

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/LivingWith/VolcanicPast/Places/volcanic_past_kansas.html

55.1. Earth’s Interior in the 1:5,000,000 Scale Balloon Model

Google:  < earth's interior >

http://images.google.com/images?q=earth's+interior+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/interior.html

http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/202/

55.2. Archimedes’ Law of Buoyancy

Google:   < archimedes principle >

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9009286/Archimedes-principle

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0804583.html

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pbuoy.html

http://physics.weber.edu/carroll/Archimedes/principle.htm

                < archimedes >

http://www.mcs.drexel.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/contents.html

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Archimedes.html

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Archimedes.html

Click on some words before the blue dots.

Google:   < andrija mohorovicic >

http://www.istrianet.org/istria/illustri/mohorovicic/

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9053204/Andrija-Mohorovicic

http://www.gfz.hr/seizmologija/moho.php

http://www.answers.com/topic/isostasy?cat=technology

                < crystal lattice structures >

http://departments.kings.edu/chemlab/animation/

At the bottom of page, click on:   Click here to go to next page.

http://cst-www.nrl.navy.mil/lattice/

http://departments.kings.edu/chemlab/animation/scubic.html

http://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/abc/crystal-lattice.htm

                < icebergs >

http://images.google.com/images?q=icebergs+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

The link above has over 800 photos of icebergs. Click on ‘Show more results’.

http://www.coolantarctica.com/gallery/scenic/icebergs1/Antarctica_iceberg1.htm

http://express.howstuffworks.com/wq-iceberg.htm

http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=109653

Google:  < properties of common solid materials>

http://www.efunda.com/materials/common_matl/common_matl.cfm

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1349949.html

55.3. Isostasy = Archimedes’ Principle for the Innards of the Earth

Google:  < archimedes >

http://www.math.utah.edu/~alfeld/Archimedes/Archimedes.html

               < archimedes principle >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buoyancy

http://physicsprinciples.tripod.com/ArchimedesPrinciple/id8.html

http://www.google.com/search?q=archimedes+principle+of+buoyancy&hl=en&biw=1121&bih=691&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=QuH_TYWUMojl0QH_yJXcAw&ved=0CEUQsAQ

http://www.sandia.gov/tp/SAFE_RAM/AP.HTM

Google: < land subsidence from ground-water pumping >

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthgwlandsubside.html

http://geochange.er.usgs.gov/sw/changes/anthropogenic/subside/

http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs06903/

http://www.ag.arizona.edu/AZWATER/arroyo/062land.html

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2006/2005WR004242.shtml

              < isostasy from answers.com >

http://www.answers.com/topic/isostasy?cat=technology

              < isostasy >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isostasy

http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~ecalais/teaching/eas450/Gravity5.pdf

http://www.homepage.montana.edu/~geol445/hyperglac/isostasy1/

http://www.homepage.montana.edu/~geol445/hyperglac/sealevel2/

http://denali.gsfc.nasa.gov/activities/branch_active2.html

http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Display.cfm?Term=isostasy

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9042969/isostasy

http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0006406.html

              < last ice age >

http://nature.ca/notebooks/english/iceage.htm

http://www.scotese.com/lastice.htm

http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nerc130k.html

http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nerc.html

http://earth.rice.edu/MTPE/cryo/cryosphere/topics/ice_age.html

http://www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/ice_ages/

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/january032011/ice-age-ta.php

Google:  < isostasy >

http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ozsvath/lectures/Isostasy.htm

http://visearth.ucsd.edu/VisE_teach/lessons/isostasy_act.html

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2007/2006JB004664.shtml

               < major tectonic plates of the world >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics

http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/tectonics_landforms/tectonics_introduction.html

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/nca/virtualtour/global.php

http://www.mapsofworld.com/thematic-maps/earthquake/major-tectonic-plates.html

http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a002900/a002953/

http://www.maps.com/ref_map.aspx?pid=12871

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/mentoring/project_ideas/Geo_p020.shtml

Google:  < important geoscientists >

http://cgiss.boisestate.edu/~billc/geoscientists.html

http://www.earthinspace.org/careers/index.html

http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos288.htm

http://www.usatoday.com/money/jobcenter/profiles/environmental.htm

http://www.awg.org/eas/profiles.html

http://www.jobbankusa.com/ohb/ohb050.html

               < isostasy >

http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0497549.html

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v298/n5877/abs/298838a0.html

http://www.springer.com/east/home?SGWID=5-102-22-173736582-0

               < usgs gravity and depth to basement method >

http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of02-353/method.html

http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of02-353/depth.html

               < isostatic models >

http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=isostatic+compensation+systems&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isostasy

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?bibcode=2001JGeod..74..637T&return_req=no_params&selfeedback=1&use_title=YES&use_kwds=YES&return_req=feedback

           < Crustal loading, isostatic models and lithospheric flexure >

http://www.geophysik.uni-kiel.de/~hajo/Bratislava/Files/Isostat/Isostat.html

https://www.e-education.psu.edu/earth520/content/l2_p17.html

        

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264370797000276

http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/topography/topography.html

http://www.geo.arizona.edu/geo5xx/geo527/Transantarctic/mechanisms.html

56.  Ground Movements Up, Down and Sideways

Google:  < plate tectonics >

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html

http://images.google.com/images?q=plate+tectonics+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

The site has hundreds of pictures and diagrams

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/tectonics.html

http://www.platetectonics.com/

               < 1964 good friday earthquake in alaska >

http://www.vibrationdata.com/earthquakes/alaska.htm

http://www.valdezalaska.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1964_Alaska_earthquake

http://www.olympus.net/personal/gofamily/quake/famous/1964.html

http://www.geo.arizona.edu/~nhartnes/alaska/uplift.html

               < usgs earthquake hazards program-latest earthquakes >

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/

http://quake.usgs.gov/recenteqs/Maps/121-36_eqs.htm

http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01724/causes_what.html

http://askrisk-swicki.eurekster.com/earthquake/

Google:  < ocean loading >

http://www.oso.chalmers.se/~loading/

http://www.oso.chalmers.se/~hgs/README.html

These effects can be quite large. In Brittany, in Cornwall, and also at the "knee" of Brazil, the daily vertical displacements can amount to 0.1 m to 0.4 m. Needless to say that this motion must be quantified when we conduct geodetic measurements aiming at the millimeter level.

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/GRD/GPS/Projects/OLT/Agu.99spring/olt.html

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/GRD/GPS/Projects/OLT/Ets.00aug31/ets.html

Water depth loadings by tides can heave the ground up/down up to plus-minus 10 cm daily.  Solid Earth Tides by the Moon and the Sun can range up to 40 cm.

< atmospheric pressure loading of ground surface >

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G54A..07V

http://wwwrses.anu.edu.au/geodynamics/gps/atm/index.html

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3148518

               < dam monitoring >

http://www.shamatec.com/dammonitoring.htm

http://www.ejge.com/2001/Ppr0118/Abs0118.htm

http://shopcompare.net/products.php?phrase=GPS+Devices&uid=86044b67c2f93861e6b8f7f7397b90ac&kuid=e1899b9c746d83f7101989ff0bfd55df&src=aw

http://www.hydroworld.com/index/display/article-display/2209433379/articles/hrhrw/damsandcivilstructures/2011/01/dam-monitoring_equipment.html

               < land subsidence in the united states fact sheet >

http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/pubs/fs00165/

http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-103-03/

http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=land+subsidence+in+the+united+states+fact+sheet+&hl=en&um=1&oi=scholart

http://www.aegweb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=4076

           < Ground motion measurement in the Lake Mead area, Nevada, by ... >

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.G42A..06D

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2007/2006JB004344.shtml

Google:  < this dynamic earth >

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/historical.html

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html

 

               < historical perspective [this dynamic earth, USGS] >

http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/curric/stage6/ees/dynamic.html

http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/quests/plattect.html

               < alfred wegener, continental drift, and plate techtonics >

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-14448/plate-tectonics

http://www.pangaea.org/wegener.htm

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/techist.html

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/glossary/Contdrift.shtml

               < usgs >

http://www.usgs.gov/

Google:  < alfred wegener, continental drift, and plate techtonics >, (yes, it is spelled techtonics in that Internet address) has seven informative links about plate tectonics.

http://www.hartrao.ac.za/geodesy/tectonics.html

Google:  < mean sea level variations >

http://www.flatrock.org.nz/topics/environment/poseidon_adventure.htm

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2002/2001JC001089.shtml

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1995/95JC02303.shtml

http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com/en/news/ocean-indicators/mean-sea-level/index.html

http://gemini.gsfc.nasa.gov/pet/msl.html

http://sealevel.colorado.edu/

http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/sltrends/mtsparker.html

57.  Earth’s Oceans

Google:  < geodetic and geophysical data of earth >

http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10773&page=7

http://cohesion.rice.edu/naturalsciences/earthscience/earthscience.cfm?doc_id=10016

               < noaa ocean explorer >

http://www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/

http://www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/explorations.html

Google:  < photosynthesis in the oceans >

http://www.mos.org/oceans/life/index.html

http://www.livescience.com/environment/050214_plankton_space.html

http://www.asu.edu/feature/includes/summer05/readmore/photosyn.html

http://www.google.com/search?q=photosynthesis+in+the+oceans&hl=en&authuser=0&biw=896&bih=793&prmd=ivnsfd&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=7Q0BTtPUIei10AG1qoSQDg&sqi=2&ved=0CFYQsAQ

               < photosynthesis in green plants >

http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/photosyn.htm

http://www.biotopics.co.uk/plants/psfac2.html

http://www.google.com/search?q=photosynthesis+in+plants&hl=en&authuser=0&biw=896&bih=793&prmd=ivnsfdb&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=HQ8BTrG-I8vPgAfroOHUDQ&ved=0CCsQsAQ

               < el nino ocean current >

http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/circulation/ocean_circulation.html

http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/topex_make1.shtml

http://www.spacedaily.com/news/pacific-01b.html

http://www.kidzworld.com/article/2620-el-nino-and-la-nina-systems

Google:  < physical parameters of world oceans >

http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/datasets/world_ocean_database/welcome.html

http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf98106/98106htm/nsf98106f1.html

               < photosynthesis >

http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2007/spectrum_plants.html

               < el nino ocean current >

http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/clim/sst_olr/sst_anim.shtml

               < oxygen production in nature >

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=13668757

http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/jpcafh/2003/107/i18/abs/jp021923e.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Oxygenation_Event

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/mars/marssurf.html

               < carbon dioxide in oceans >

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/07/0715_040715_oceancarbon.html

http://www.atmosphere.mpg.de/enid/1vd.html

http://www.ghgonline.org/co2sinkocean.htm

http://www.harvardmagazine.com/on-line/1102198.html

               < geodetic and geophysical data of earth >

http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/

http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10773&page=1

57.1. Ocean Currents

Google:  < underwater-submarine volcanoes >

http://www.crystalinks.com/volcanoesunderwater.html

http://www.ruggedelegantliving.com/a/003698.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Submarine_volcano

http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=593160

Google:  < ocean gyres >

http://www.google.com/search?q=ocean+gyres&hl=en&authuser=0&biw=896&bih=793&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=eDABTvLAE4PXrAH60fXnAg&sqi=2&ved=0CC4QsAQ

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-67097/ocean

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pacific_Garbage_Patch

http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/chlorophyll.html

 

                < ocean currents and climate >

http://cubanology.com/Articles/Ocean_Currents_The_Distribution_of_Life.htm

                < coriolis effect >

http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es1904/es1904page01.cfm

Click on the images in link above

http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/currents/05currents1.html

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/coriolis_effect.html

http://www.physics.orst.edu/~mcintyre/coriolis/

Google:  < current velocities of the gulf stream >

http://rads.tudelft.nl/gulfstream/

http://kingfish.coastal.edu/marine/gulfstream/p2a.htm

http://envisat.esa.int/live/envisat_live_03.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tide

http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/St-Ts/Tides.html

               < el niño >

http://www.fema.gov/kids/elnino.htm

 

               < ocean currents >

http://earth.usc.edu/~stott/Catalina/Oceans.html

http://www.ecn.ac.uk/Education/factors_affecting_climate.htm

58.  Earth’s Atmosphere

Google:  < orbital perturbations of earth satellites >

http://www.aero.org/publications/chao/index.html

http://science.jrank.org/pages/4879/Orbit-Perturbation-theory.html

To see how thin Earth’s atmosphere is, go to:

http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap051207.html

Click on the image to enlarge it.  Scroll the image.  There are many informative links (= underlined words) in the text under the photo.  Recall that Earth’s radius is 6371 kilometers = 3959 miles, and that there are not very many air molecules above 300 kilometers = 200 miles altitudes.  

Google:  < earth's atmosphere >

http://images.google.com/images?q=earth's+atmosphere+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/atmosphere.htm

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/atmosphere.html

http://www.google.com/search?q=earth's+atmosphere+layers&hl=en&authuser=0&biw=1148&bih=771&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=josCTv7tG-Tk0QHovLzPDg&sqi=2&ved=0CBsQsAQ

http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/CURR/SCIENCE/sciber00/8th/earth/sciber/atmosp.htm

http://www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/atmosphere.html

               < atmospheric pressure >

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pman.html

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7d.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/everest/exposure/pressure.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/

              < air pressure on earth >

http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2005/FlorenceHang.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Earth

               < ams glossary >

http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/browse?s=c&p=29

http://www.ametsoc.org/pubs/glossmeteor.html

http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/ams/glossary.html

http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/glossary/otherlinks.html

               < atmospheric density >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Density_of_air

http://wahiduddin.net/calc/density_altitude.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_sound

               < atmospheric density dynamics and the motion of satellites >

http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-04062009-190200/unrestricted/DISSERTATION.pdf

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/STP-H2-ANDE.html

               < encyclopedia:pascal (unit) >

http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/pressureunits.html

http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Pascal

http://www.allrefer.com/blaise-pascal

               < recorded weather extremes >

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001431.html

http://members.iinet.net.au/~jacob/worldtp.html

http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalextremes.html

http://zebu.uoregon.edu/weather.html

Google: < altitude sickness and atmospheric pressure >

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9005937/altitude-sickness

http://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/2394/4/?spage=1&letter=B

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0814933.html

http://library.thinkquest.org/10131/nepal_sickness.html

http://www.climbmountkilimanjaro.com/safe-trekking/what-is-ams-acute-mountain-sickness/

              < understanding air pressure >

http://seplessons.ucsf.edu/node/287

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure_system

              < definition of atmospheric pressure reduced to sea level >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_pressure

http://www.physicalgeography.net/physgeoglos/s.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contour_line

Google:  < october 26, 1999 learjet crash >

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/daily/oct99/crash26.htm

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0UBT/is_44_13/ai_57165104

http://news.google.com/archivesearch?hl=en&q=october+26,+learjet+crash&as_ldate=1999&as_hdate=1999&um=1&scoring=t&sa=X&oi=archive&ct=title

Google:  < density of air >

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/air-temperature-pressure-density-d_771.html

               < mole concept and mole conversions >

http://misterguch.brinkster.net/molecalculations.html

http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/moles/faq/moles-to-liters.shtml

               < nist, si system >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mole_(unit)

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/index.html

  < avogadro's number >  Avogadro's number = 6.0221415 × 1023 mol-1

http://www.carlton.srsd119.ca/chemical/molemass/avogadno.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avogadro_constant

               < composition of earth’s atmosphere >

http://science.hq.nasa.gov/earth-sun/science/atmosphere.html

http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/9-12/features/912_liftoff_atm.html

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7a.html

               < The atmosphere – origin and structure >

http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfjps/1400/atmos_origin.html

 

http://thaiurlscom/Atmosphere/

58.1. Atmosphere has Many Functions

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Earth

Google:   < 10-Accretion of Mass >

http://www.expanding-earth.org/page_10.htm

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1960AJ.....65..318H

               

< meteorites falling on earth, moon and mars >

http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planand on marsets/profile.cfm?Object=Meteors

http://nineplanets.org/meteorites.html

http://www.spacetoday.org/SolSys/Earth/Meteorites/MeteoritesExplained.html

                          < meteors and meteorite showers >

http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/meteors/showers.html

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/meteors-ez.html

http://www.amsmeteors.org/faqm.html

 

Google:  < human inner ear >

http://webschoolsolutions.com/patts/systems/ear.htm

http://www.webster.edu/~davittdc/ear/inner/inner.htm        

http://www.ask.com/questions-about/Balance-Vestibular-System

http://www.healthtree.com/articles/auditory-system/vestibular-system/

               < cosmic radiation hitting the earth >

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/050518_radio_flash.html

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/features/topics/snr_group/cosmic_rays.html

http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/8/7/6

http://spaceweather.com/        

In last link at upper left, see        ‘Current Conditions’ for the day the link is clicked.  From the link’s ‘archives’ at upper right, choose date: Friday, Jun. 24, 2011 and read about the 5 to 20 meter ASTEROID FLYBY of the Earth.  

For Tuesday, Aug. 2, 2011, see that almost one proton per cubic centimeter exists from solar eruptions  hitting the Earth’s atmosphere at Solar wind’s speed: 434.3 km/sec.

               < clouds around the earth >

http://www.fourmilab.ch/cgi-bin/Earth/action?opt=-p&img=irsat.bmp

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Clouds/

http://ds9.ssl.berkeley.edu/LWS_GEMS/6/secef_8.htm

http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/20020509imagessu.html

http://www.gearthblog.com/blog/archives/2005/09/nice_global_clo.html

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/02/030228072013.htm

58.2. Further Benefits of Earth’s Atmosphere

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/southamerica/chile/8583469/Chilean-ash-cloud-completes-round-the-world-tour.html

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070615170118AAnIFVw

http://www.astronomygcse.co.uk/AstroGCSE/New%20Site/Topic%201/planet%20earth/atmosphere.htm

http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/education/educ/radio/tran-rec/exerc/iono.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Density_of_air

59.  Global Warming and Cooling

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun

Google:. < the nine planets >

http://www.nineplanets.org/

 

                 < greenhouse gases >

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/index.html

http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html

                 < heat capacity >

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/HeatBucket/

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/HeatCapacity.html

http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/calorimetry/heatcapacity.html

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JGR....86..498C

                 < heat capacity of water >

http://www.haverford.edu/educ/knight-booklet/heatcapwater.htm

http://www.indiana.edu/~geol105/1425chap4.htm

http://www.ausetute.com.au/heatcapa.html

221http://van.physics.uiuc.edu/qa/listing.php?id=1821

                 < heat capacity of air >

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/air-specific-heat-capacity-d_705.html

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/specific-heat-capacity-d_391.html

                 < ams glossary >

http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/browse?s=c&p=29

http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=specific-heat-capacity1

                 < global oceanic heat budget >

http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/~mattom/IntroOc/lecture04.html

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS41D..05J

http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/ocng_textbook/chapter05/chapter05_05.htm

http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/educators/heat_budget/background/sys_struc/HB_sys_concepts.htm

http://www.clearlight.com/~mhieb/WVFossils/ice_ages.html

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7x.html

Google:  < heat capacity of oceans >

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/HeatBucket/

Google:  < p-38 airplane dug out of greenland ice in 1992 >.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/secondworldwar/story/0,,2109524,00.html

http://www.b-29s-over-korea.com/lost_squadron/lost_squadron.html

Link above states that the snow accumulation at the Greenland location

of the abandoned airplanes over the 40-year time period was over 250 feet = 76 meters.

It amounts to about 1.9 meter = 6.25 feet of water equivalent ice accumulation per year at that location.

http://www.aero-news.net/index.cfm?ContentBlockID=59eb9576-a7ad-4fc6-a895-6d882fa81ee8

Google:  < geothermal energy >

http://images.google.com/images?q=geothermal+energy+&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

http://geothermal.marin.org/pwrheat.html

http://www.renewableenergyaccess.com/rea/tech/geothermal

http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/geothermal.htm

               < volcanoes >

http://images.google.com/images?q=volcanoes&hl=en&um=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title

http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/

http://www.volcanolive.com/active2.html

http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/

               < heat capacity of air >

http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=specific-heat-capacity1

               < temperature scales, nasa >

http://istd.gsfc.nasa.gov/cryo/introduction/temp_scales.html

               < atmospheres of earth, moon, venus, mars and Jupiter >

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/overview.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_the_Moon

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Mercury

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Venus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Mars

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Jupiter

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn

ISN’T THIS EARTH NEAT!